Ukuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle kweZiko leeNkcukacha: Ukuntywila ngokuNxibelela kwiiTekhnoloji zokupholisa ngokukhululekileyonge@egorkaritskii
99,990 ukufunda
99,990 ukufunda

# Ukuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle kweZiko leeNkcukacha: Ukuntywila ngokuNxibelela kwiiTekhnoloji zokupholisa ngokukhululekileyo

10m2024/05/14

## Inde kakhulu; Ukufunda

Fumana amandla okuguqula iteknoloji yokupholisa simahla kumaziko edatha, uphonononga iingenelo zayo, imingeni, kunye nefuthe ekusebenzeni nasekuthembekeni. Phonononga indlela esi sisombululo esiluhlaza siguqula ngayo izicwangciso zokupholisa kunye nokubumba ikamva lemisebenzi yeziko ledatha.

### Coin Mentioned

Kwinqaku elidlulileyo , sixoxe ngokukhawuleza ukwanda kweziseko zedatha kunye nokunyuka kokusetyenziswa kombane okubangele. Njengoko iiseva ziguqula umbane zibe ngubushushu ngexesha lokusebenza, ukulawula ukushisa okuphezulu kunye nokupholisa zombini izibonelelo zedatha kunye nezixhobo ziba yinombolo ye-1 ingxaki. kumaqela eDC.

Ngelixa iindlela zokupholisa zemveli, kubandakanywa izifudumezi zomoya kunye nezikhenkcezisi zipholile ngokufanelekileyo kwiziko ledatha kunye neeseva, ixabiso labo lihlala liyi-drawback ebalulekileyo. Ukupholisa simahla ngokwahlukileyo kwiindlela zemveli akufuni kutyalo-mali olukhulu kodwa kunika inqanaba elifanayo lokusebenza kakuhle kunye nokuthembeka. Kweli nqaku, ndiza kwenza uphononongo olubanzi lwetekhnoloji yokupholisa simahla, ndiqaqambise iinzuzo zayo, imida, kunye neemfuno zokuphunyezwa ngempumelelo.

## IFiziksi yokupholisa simahla

Ukuqonda ifiziksi emva kokupholisa simahla, kuya kufuneka siphinde sijonge ifomyula yamandla obushushu:

Q = mcΔT

Apha, 'Q' imele ubungakanani bobushushu obufunyenweyo okanye obulahlekileyo, 'm' imele ubunzima besampulu (kwimeko yethu, ubunzima bomoya kwiziko ledatha), 'c' ibonisa umthamo wobushushu okhethekileyo womoya, kwaye ΔT ibonisa umahluko wobushushu.

Kwiziko ledatha, owona mthombo wobushushu yi-CPU. Ngokuqhelekileyo, kukho ii-CPU ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-4, nganye kuzo isebenza malunga nama-watts angama-200. Njengoko kuxoxwe ngaphambili, onke amandla ombane asetyenziswa yi-CPU aguqulwa abe bubushushu. Ke ngoko, ngee-CPU ezi-2, umzekelo, sivelisa iiwatts ezingama-400 zobushushu obufuna ukuchithwa. Ngoku injongo yethu kukufumanisa ubungakanani bomoya ofunekayo kule njongo.

Iparamitha ΔT, okanye umahluko weqondo lobushushu, ibonisa ukuba xa usezantsi ubushushu bomoya wangaphandle, ubunzima bomoya obuncinci bufunekayo ukupholisa ii-CPU. Umzekelo, ukuba ubushushu bomoya ongenileyo yi-0°C kwaye iqondo lobushushu lokuphuma liyi-35°C, i-ΔT iya kuba ngama-35 kuphela, nto leyo ebonisa imfuneko ephantsi yobunzima bomoya. Nangona kunjalo, ngexesha lehlobo, ukupholisa kuba ngumngeni ngakumbi ngenxa yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu. Ukuphakama kobushushu bangaphandle, kokukhona ubuninzi bomoya uya kufuneka ukupholisa iiseva.

## ISeva kunye neNethiwekhi Components Unyino lobushushu

Nangona ukupholisa simahla kunokusebenza kakuhle kwimozulu ephakathi kunye nebandayo, kusenonyino ngenxa yothintelo lobushushu kumalungu eseva. Amacandelo abalulekileyo kwi-IT kunye nezixhobo zenethiwekhi, ezifana neeprosesa, i-RAM, ii-HDD, ii-SSD, kunye ne-NVMe drives, zineemfuno zokushisa zokusebenza:

• Iiprosesa: ubuninzi 89°C
• I-RAM: ubuninzi bama-75°C
• Ii-HDDs: ubuninzi be-50°C
• Ii-SSD kunye ne-NVMe drives: max 47-48°C

Le mida ichaphazela ngokuthe ngqo ukufaneleka kwamaqondo obushushu omoya angaphandle ukupholisa. Ukupholisa simahla bekungayi kusebenza kwimimandla apho amaqondo obushushu angaphandle adlula le miqobo okanye ade asondele kuyo, njengoko kungonakalisa inkqubo ngenxa yobushushu obugqithisileyo. Imida yoMmandla

Njengoko sele sichazile, amaqondo obushushu angaphandle kufuneka ahlale esezantsi ngokuqhubekayo kunobushushu bokusebenza besixhobo se-IT ukuze kuphole simahla ukuze kusebenze. Oku kufuna ukuba kuqwalaselwe ngononophelo iimeko zemozulu yendawo ye-DC. Imibutho kufuneka ihlalutye uqikelelo lwemozulu lwexesha elide ukuqinisekisa ukuba amaqondo obushushu awadluli kwimida efunekayo, nangeentsuku okanye iiyure ezithile. Ukongezelela, ukuqwalasela ixesha elide lokuphila kwamaziko edatha (ngokuqhelekileyo i-10-15 iminyaka), imiphumo yokufudumala kwehlabathi kufuneka ifakwe kwizigqibo zendawo.

## IiMfuno zoLwakhiwo lweNode yomncedisi

Kumxholo wefiziksi, ukufezekiswa kokupholisa okusebenzayo kwiiseva kuxhomekeke ekuqinisekiseni ukuhamba komoya okwaneleyo kwinkqubo. Uyilo lomncedisi ludlala indima ebalulekileyo kule nkqubo.

Kwelinye icala, iiseva ezingenazo iimpawu zoyilo ezifanelekileyo, ezinje ngokugqobhoza okanye ukuvuleka, zinokuthintela ukuhamba komoya, okunokuthi kubeke esichengeni ukusebenza ngokupheleleyo kwesixhobo sokupholisa sasimahla.

## Ulawulo lokufuma

Inqanaba lokufuma lolunye uqwalaselo olubalulekileyo xa kuziwa ekupholiseni simahla. Njengoko singenako ukulawula iimeko zokufuma kwangaphandle kuvela imibuzo emibini echaphazelekayo: okokuqala, ukujongana namanqanaba okufuma asondela okanye adlula i-100% kwiziko ledatha (DC); okwesibini, ukujongana neemeko zokufuma komoya ophantsi kakhulu, njengexesha leqabaka ngoFebruwari losuku kunye nobushushu bangaphandle obungu-30 ° C kunye nomswakama ophakathi ukusuka kwi-2% ukuya kwi-5%. Makhe sihlolisise ezi meko.

Kwiimeko zokufuma okuphakamileyo, kukho inkxalabo eqhelekileyo malunga nokwenzeka okunokwenzeka kokuxinana kunye neziphumo zayo ezimbi ekusebenzeni kwesixhobo. Ngokuchaseneyo nale nkxalabo, phakathi kweendawo zokupholisa ze-DC, apho inkqubo yokupholisa iyenzeka, ukuxinana kuthintelwe. Oku kungenxa yomgaqo wokuba ukujiya kwenzeka xa umoya ofudumeleyo nofumileyo udibana nemiphezulu ebandayo. Nangona kunjalo, ngaphakathi kwenkqubo yokupholisa yasimahla yeDC, akukho nto ibanda kunomoya ojikelezayo. Ngenxa yoko, ukuxinana kuthintelwe ngokwendalo, nto leyo isusa imfuneko yamanyathelo athathiweyo.

Kwelinye icala, xa ujongana nokufuma okuphantsi, ukuxhalaba kutshintshela ekuveliseni umbane ongatshintshiyo, nto leyo ebeka isoyikiso kuzinzo lwezixhobo. Lo mba awunxulunyaniswa nokucutheka kodwa ufuna isisombululo esahlukileyo. Ukunciphisa kubandakanya iinkqubo zokubeka phantsi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwengubo ekhethekileyo yomgangatho. La manyathelo ahambelana neendlela ezisekiweyo zokukhusela izixhobo zangaphakathi kumbane ongashukumiyo. Ngokumisela izinto zokwakha phantsi, ii-racks, kunye nezixhobo ze-IT, intlawulo ye-static ichithwa ngokungenabungozi emhlabeni, igcina ingqibelelo yezixhobo.

Kwimozulu yendalo, iimeko zokufuma okuphezulu kakhulu okanye okuphantsi azifane zifane. Izinto ezingaphandle eziqaphelekayo ziquka iziganeko ezinqabileyo ezifana nesiphango esifumana ukufuma okungama-100% ngoJulayi okanye iqabaka emandla ebangela ukufuma okuphantsi kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, kuninzi lwexesha amanqanaba okufuma ahlala elungile ngaphakathi kweendidi ezamkelekileyo ezingenzi monakalo kwisixhobo, nangona kungabikho ungenelelo olusebenzayo.

## Ubungakanani boMoya kunye nesantya

Njengoko sele sixoxile, ukuququzelela ukupholisa okusebenzayo kufuneka umthamo omkhulu womoya wangaphandle. Ngaxeshanye, imfuno ebonakala ngathi ichasene ne-antiintuitive ivela - ukugcina umoya ophantsi ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo. Lo mqobo ubonakala umiliselwe kwimingeni ebangelwa yimisinga yomoya enesantya esiphezulu ejikeleza ngaphakathi.

Ukwenza lula, khawufane ucinge i-airspeed ephezulu njengomlambo oqinileyo osuka kumbhobho, udala i-swirls kunye nesiphithiphithi esijikeleze izixhobo ze-IT. Esi siphithiphithi sinokukhokelela kwiintshukumo zomoya ezingaqhelekanga kunye nokufudumeza kwendawo. Ukujongana noku, sijonge ngokweqhinga isantya somoya esisezantsi semitha eyi-1-2 ngesekhondi kwisithuba sonke.

Ukugcina esi santya somoya silawulwayo kusivumela ukuba siphelise isiphithiphithi. Isantya esiphezulu sinokubeka emngciphekweni izitenxo kwintshukumo yomoya. Ngokubambelela kwiimitha ezi-1-2 ngoluhlu lwesibini, sikhuthaza ukuhamba komoya okugudileyo, okufanayo, ukuphepha ukufudumeza kwendawo. Olu lungelelwano lubuthathaka luqinisekisa ukupholisa kwezixhobo ze-IT ezizezona zilungileyo ngokushiya imigibe eyayanyaniswa nemisinga yomoya enesantya esiphezulu.

Njengoko kunokubonwa, indlela yokupholisa yamahhala ijikeleza ukusetyenziswa ngokufanelekileyo komoya wangaphandle ngelixa ibeka phambili i-airspeed ephantsi elawulwayo yangaphakathi. Esi sicwangciso ngamabomu sinceda ukugcina i-laminar kunye ne-airflow efanayo, ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwezixhobo ze-IT zokupholisa.

## Ingcamango yokwakha

Kwiparadigm yokupholisa yasimahla, imibhobho yomoya yemveli ayisetyenziswanga ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo sesakhiwo. Ngokungafani neeseti eziqhelekileyo ezinemibhobho yomoya echongiweyo kwiindonga, iisilingi, okanye iindawo ezithile, amaziko okucubungula idatha athatha indlela engaqhelekanga. Isakhiwo ngokwaso sithathwa njengombhobho womoya, unikezela iiyunithi zesiqhelo zokupholisa umoya ukuba ziphelelwe lixesha. Umlinganiselo omkhulu wale mibhobho yomoya uyiguqula ibe ngamacandelo adibeneyo amagumbi kunye nemigangatho.

Inkqubo yokuhamba komoya iqala njengoko umoya wangaphandle ungena kwisakhiwo, udlula kwiintlobo ezimbini zeefilitha - izihlungi ezinqabileyo kunye nezihlunu ezintle. Nje ukuba umoya uqhube inkqubo yokucoca, uqhutywa ngabalandeli ukuya kwimithamo ebanzi yokwakha, ephantse ilingane nemigangatho emine ukuphakama. Lo mthamo omkhulu usebenzela injongo yawo: ukunciphisa ukuhamba komoya, ukunciphisa isantya sawo kuluhlu olufunekayo lweemitha ezili-1-2 ngesekhondi. Emva koko, umoya wehlela kwigumbi lomatshini.

Emva kokutyhutyha igumbi lomatshini, umoya uqhubeka nohambo lwawo kwii-racks ze-IT, uqhubela phambili kwi-aisle eshushu. Ukusuka apho, ingena kumqokeleli womoya oshushu ngaphambi kokuba igxothwe ngaphandle ngabalandeli be-exhaust. Le ndlela yomoya eyakhiweyo iqinisekisa inkqubo epholileyo yokupholisa ngelixa igcina isantya somoya esilawulwayo.

## Isantya somoya kunye neVolume

Uyilo olwenziwa ngabom lokusebenzisa umthamo wolwakhiwo olwandisiweyo luneenjongo ezimbini. Okokuqala nokuphambili, ivumela ukunciphisa ngokuthe ngcembe kwi-airspeed, ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukuhamba komoya kufezekisa isantya esifunwayo se-1-2 yeemitha ngomzuzwana. Le santya somoya esilawulwayo siyimfuneko ekuthinteleni isiphithiphithi kunye nokugcina ukuhamba kwe-laminar, kubaluleke ngakumbi njengoko umoya uqhubela phambili ngokusebenzisa izixhobo ze-IT ezibuthathaka. Okwesibini, umthamo obalulekileyo uvumela umthamo womoya ofunekayo ukuze uchithe ubushushu obuveliswayo ngokufanelekileyo. I-synchronized interplay ye-airspeed kunye nevolumu igalelo kwimpumelelo yonke yenkqubo.

## Uxinzelelo olwahlukileyo njengoMqhubi woLawulo olulodwa

Kwilungiselelo lokupholisa lamahhala, asinalo ulawulo lobushushu bomoya wangaphandle, okukhokelela kwiinguqu kwiqondo lokushisa lomoya elingena kwiZiko leDatha (DC). Ngaphandle koku, ukuqikelela umoya ofunekayo wokupholisa isixhobo kubalulekile. Ukujongana nale nto, sithembele kwindlela yoxinzelelo oluhlukeneyo.

Ngaphakathi kwi-rack ye-IT nganye, iiseva ezinabalandeli bangaphakathi zisebenza ngesantya esahlukileyo, ngokudibeneyo zenza uxinzelelo phakathi kwe-rack yangaphambili nangemuva. Ngeeseva ezininzi, nganye inegalelo ekuhambeni komoya ngokubanzi, lo mahluko woxinzelelo ngokuthe ngcembe uyakha phakathi kweendlela ezibandayo nezishushu. Ukusebenzisa i-sensor zoxinzelelo kuzo zombini ii-aisles nangaphandle kwesakhiwo se-DC, sinokulinganisa olu xinzelelo lwahlukileyo.

Ukubala kubandakanya ukukhupha idatha ye-sensor ye-pressure kwi-aisle eshushu kwi-atmospheric pressure kunye nokukhupha idatha yenzwa yoxinzelelo kwindawo ebandayo yoxinzelelo lwe-atmospheric. Njengoko kumzekelo ongezantsi:

Umzekelo wehlabathi lokwenyani

Amaxabiso aphumayo ke asikhokele ekumiseleni unikezelo lomoya oluyimfuneko kwi-DC kunye ne-exhaust efunekayo ukucima ukusebenza kwabalandeli beseva. Ngamagama alula, silinganisa iimfuno zethu zokuhamba komoya ngokusekelwe kwiiyantlukwano zoxinzelelo, okusivumela ukuba silawule inkqubo yokupholisa ngaphakathi kwe-DC ngokufanelekileyo.

## Igumbi lokufudumeza kunye nokuxuba

Iinkqubo zokufudumeza zemveli aziqhelekanga kuMaziko eDatha ngokupholisa simahla. Ukusebenzisa amanzi kuthathwa njengento engekho ngqiqweni ngenxa yeendleko kunye neengozi ezinokubakho kwisixhobo. Oku kubangela umngeni ngexesha lokubanda okukhulu, ukufikelela -20-30 degrees ngaphandle. Ngelixa izixhobo zisebenza kakuhle, iinjineli zifuna indlela ethambileyo. Esona sisombululo sibalaseleyo nesinengqiqo apha kuphinda kusetyenziswe umoya oshushu owenziwe zizixhobo ze-IT. Ukuqondisa umoya oshushu ukusuka kumaseva ukuya kwigumbi lokuxuba, kunye nokubuyisela inxalenye yalo kumoya oyintloko wangoku, inkqubo igcina indawo efudumeleyo ebusika kwaye ivumela ukugcina iindleko zokufudumeza.

## Ukulula kunye nokuthembeka

Ithisisi ephambili kwithiyori yokuthembeka iqinisekisa ukuba ukulula kuzala ukuthembeka. Oku kubambele isixokelelwano sokupholisa sasimahla esime njengengqiqo elula ngokuphawulekayo. Inkqubo isebenza njenge-barricade, ingenisa umoya ovela ngaphandle ngokusebenzisa izihluzi, idlula kwizixhobo ze-IT, kwaye emva koko iyayikhupha.

Ukungabikho kweenkqubo eziyinkimbinkimbi kwandisa ukuthembeka, kunye nabalandeli kuphela ababeka umngcipheko kwimozulu eshushu. Indlela yokupholisa ngokukhululekileyo ingumzekelo wokwenziwa lula kwenkqubo, iphucula kakhulu ukuthembeka ngokunciphisa inani lezinto.

## Abalandeli beDC vs Abalandeli beSeva

Igunya lolawulo lwabalandeli ngomnye umbuzo osisiseko kumandla omoya ngaphakathi kwe-DCs. Njengoko sixoxile, kukho abalandeli abakhulu kwinqanaba le-DC kunye nabo bakwinqanaba leseva. Umbuzo ngulo: ngaba abalandeli beziko ledatha babonelela ngomoya nje, beshiya abalandeli beseva ukuba basebenzise kangangoko kufuneka? Okanye ngaba imfuno isuka kubalandeli beseva, inyanzelisa abalandeli beDC ukuba bafezekise iimfuno zabo?

Isixhobo simi ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: abalandeli beseva banendima ephambili kule nkqubo, bemisela ukuhamba komoya okuyimfuneko. Emva koko, abalandeli be-DC baphendula ngokuhambisa umthamo womoya ofunekayo. Kuyacaca ukuba ukuba imfuno eyongezelelekileyo evela kuzo zonke iiseva ingaphezulu komthamo wonikezelo we-DC fan, inokukhokelela ekufudumeni okunokwenzeka.

Ke impendulo yeyokuba abalandeli beseva banokubaluleka kolu tshintsho. Baququzelela ukuhamba komoya, bechaza ubungakanani bomoya obufunekayo.

## Ukusebenza kakuhle kunye nokubala kwePUE

Ukuvavanya ukusebenza kakuhle kweprojekthi ye-DC ukubalwa kokuSebenza ngokuSebenza koMbane (i-PUE) ngokuqhelekileyo isetyenziswa. Ifomyula ye-PUE ngumlinganiselo weTotal Facility Power kuMandla weSixhobo se-IT:

I-PUE = Amandla eZiko elipheleleyo / Amandla eSixhobo se-IT

Ngokufanelekileyo, ilingana ne-1, ebonisa ukuba onke amandla ajoliswe kwizixhobo ze-IT ngaphandle kokuchitha. Nangona kunjalo, ukufezekisa le meko igqibeleleyo kunqabile kwiiprojekthi zehlabathi lokwenyani.

Omnye umba uvela xa sizama ukuseka indlela ecacileyo yokwenza i-computing ye-Power Use Effectiveness (PUE). Ke, umzekelo, kwinkqubo yethu, sinemetric ebonisa ukusetyenziswa kwamandla kwangoko kwiiwatts, okwenza kube lula ukubala iPUE ngexesha lokwenyani.

Ngapha koko, sinokufumana umndilili we-PUE ngonyaka, obonelela ngovavanyo olubanzi ngakumbi oluthathela ingqalelo ukuguquguquka kwamaxesha onyaka. Oku kubaluleke ngakumbi xa kujongwa umahluko kusetyenziso lwamandla phakathi kwamaxesha onyaka; umzekelo, umahluko kwiimfuno zokupholisa phakathi kweenyanga zasehlotyeni nasebusika. Oku kuthetha ukuba ukuba sifuna ukuba novandlakanyo oluthembeke ngakumbi, kufuneka siwubeke phambili umndilili wonyaka ukubonelela ngovavanyo olulungeleleneyo nolubanzi.

Kwakhona kubalulekile ukuphonononga i-PUE kungekhona ngokwamandla kuphela kodwa kunye neeyunithi zemali, ngaloo ndlela ibandakanya ukuguquguquka kwexesha lonyaka kwamaxabiso ombane. Ukuvavanya i-PUE ngokwemali kunika imbono ebanzi ngakumbi ekusebenzeni kakuhle.

Ngaphandle koko, le ndlela ityhila amathuba okufezekisa ixabiso le-PUE elingaphantsi kwe-1 xa lilinganiswe ngeedola. Iyenzeka, umzekelo, xa sisebenzisa ubushushu obumdaka ukufudumeza amanzi kwaye sithengise ngakumbi kwizixeko ezikufutshane. Imizekelo eqaphelekayo, efana neziko ledatha likaGoogle e-USA kunye nendawo yeYandex eFinland, ibonisa ukusebenza kwezenzo ezinjalo, ngakumbi kwimimandla eneendleko eziphezulu zamandla.

## Ukusebenza ngokufanelekileyo vs. Ukuthembeka

Iinkxalabo malunga nokunciphisa iindleko kunye nokwandisa ukusebenza kakuhle kudla ngokuphakamisa imibuzo malunga nefuthe elibi elinokubakho ekuthembekeni. Nangona kunjalo, ndingathanda ukugxininisa ukuba ekupholiseni kwamahhala ukulandelwa kokusebenza kakuhle akuthothisi ukuthembeka. Endaweni yoko, iziphumo zayo ebezingalindelekanga zetekhnoloji zinokunyusa ukusebenza kakuhle. Umzekelo, njengoko sele sixoxile, ukuhambisa ubushushu obugqithisileyo kwiimpompo zokufudumeza ngezibonelelo ezongezelelweyo, ezifana nokuvelisa amanzi ashushu kwizixeko ezikufutshane, iba yinto enenzuzo yemali ngaphandle kokuncama ukuthembeka.

## Ikamva lokupholisa mahala

Ngaphandle kwazo zonke izibonelelo zokupholisa simahla, imboni yeziko ledatha isaqhutywa yindlela yolondolozo kwaye ifuna ukuthembeka okuqinisekisiweyo, kunye notyekelo lokuchasa izisombululo ezintsha. Ukuthembela kwizatifiketi ezivela kwimibutho efana ne Iziko le-Uptime ukuthengisa kubangela omnye umqobo kwizisombululo zokupholisa simahla, ukuswela isatifikethi esisekiweyo, ukukhokela ababoneleli bentengiso ukubajonga ngokuthandabuza.

Nangona kunjalo, kukho umkhwa phakathi kwe-hyper-scalers yokwamkela ukupholisa simahla njengesisombululo esiphambili kwii-DC zabo. Ngenani elikhulayo leenkampani ezivuma iindleko-zokusebenza kunye neenzuzo zokusebenza kobu buchwepheshe, silindele ukuba amaziko edatha yokupholisa angabizi kakhulu aya kuvela kwiminyaka eyi-10-20 ezayo.

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