This article should be read with the sole purpose of education. No users nor machines must be hurt or damaged. Ethics first. Fun later.
Modern x86 Operating Systems, use protected mode to execute instructions. In protected mode there are 4 different privilege levels, from 0 to 3. They are also referred to as ring0 — ring3, to indicate the level of separation between them.
The highest-level (the least privileged) is userland (ring3) where regular applications run. The lowest-level (the highest privileged) is kernel mode (ring0) where the kernel or the core of the operating system runs (basically the code that own the hardware).
Whenever an application needs to call the kernel, it uses an interrupt to tell to the kernel which system call to execute. This interrupt in Linux x86–32 is instruction int $0x80 and in Linux x86–64 is the instruction syscall.
When the CPU takes the interrupt, it switch from ring3 to ring0 and it calls the system_call. From this regular and seemingly harmless behavior, nice and horrible things can be made, if you know what I mean. Here is the code that allows to hook a kernel system call and, well, free your imagination. Happy hacking!
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Originally published at worldofpiggy.com on September 11, 2015.
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