How I Developed the Classic Pong Game on an Arduino Board by@chingiz

How I Developed the Classic Pong Game on an Arduino Board

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Chingiz Nazar HackerNoon profile picture

Chingiz Nazar

Love Robotics and IoT

I have figured out a way to develop the popular pong game on the Arduino board.

The game is not complicated but interesting to develop and play.

Here 0.96 inch OLED display and two buttons have been used. The display is small but enough for our project. Two buttons will be used to move our racket up and down.

The display size is 128x64 pixels. The first and last 16 pixels will be used to display scores.

The scores will be displayed vertically.

One racket will be controlled by the player, and the second one, the opponent will be controlled by the Arduino. We will write code so that it will try to move towards the ball. At the beginning of the game, it will move slowly, and then, it will gradually accelerate.

We will control the ball direction through ball_direction_X and ball_direction_Y variables. The ball will move in a specified direction each moment. If the ball hits a wall, ball_direction_Y will be reversed and the same logic for ball_direction_X and rackets.

The project code is published on my GitHub ‘Arduino Ping Pong Game’ project page.

Connection

Buttons’ one leg will be connected to the GND. The second legs will be connected to pins 6 and 5 of the Arduino.

The display will be connected by I2C pins: V - 5V, GND - GND, SCL - A5, SDA - A4.

Developing Pong on Arduino

Let’s include libraries and initiate all variables we need. Here we have buttons, scores, player, opponent, and the ball-related variables.

//oled libraries:
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
//oled vars:
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels
#define OLED_RESET     4 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)
#define SCREEN_ADDRESS 0x3C ///< See datasheet for Address; 0x3D for 128x64, 0x3C for 128x32
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);

//Button pins:
const int buttonUP = 6;
const int buttonDOWN = 5;
//button vars:
int lastButtonStateUP = LOW;   // the previous reading from the input pin
int lastButtonStateDOWN = LOW;   // the previous reading from the input pin
unsigned long debounceDelay = 10;    // the debounce time; increase if the output flickers

//GAME vars:
//scores:
int player_score = 0;
int enemy_score = 0;

//player:
int player_position_X = 19; // static
int player_position_Y = 0;
int player_width = 16;
int player_thickness = 4;

//enemy:
int enemy_position_X = 104; // static
int enemy_position_Y = 47;
int enemy_width = 16;
int enemy_thickness = 4;
long enemy_last_move_time = 0;
long enemy_speed_of_moving = 2000;//update time in ms


//ball:
//void fillCircle(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t r, uint16_t color);
int ball_position_X = 63;
int ball_position_Y = 31;
int ball_radius = 1;
int ball_direction_X = 3;
int ball_direction_Y = 3;
int ball_speed = 8;//9,8,7...1
long ball_last_move_time = 0;

In the setup, we will initiate buttons, Serial, randomSeed, and display. After that, we will show a starter screen and start the game:

void setup() {
  pinMode(buttonUP, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(buttonDOWN, INPUT_PULLUP);

  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Start");

  //initiate random
  randomSeed(analogRead(0));
  ball_direction_X = -3;
  ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
  //ball_direction_Y = -5;//test

  
  // SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC = generate display voltage from 3.3V internally
  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, SCREEN_ADDRESS)) {
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;); // Don't proceed, loop forever
  }

  // Show initial display buffer contents on the screen --
  // the library initializes this with an Adafruit splash screen.
  display.display();
  
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //scores field init:
  display.setTextSize(2);    
  display.setTextColor(SSD1306_WHITE); // Draw white text

  player_score = 8888; // test
  enemy_score = 8888; // test
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);
  
  display.setTextSize(3);
  display.setCursor(28, 0);
  display.write("Ping");
  display.setCursor(28, 31);
  display.write("Pong");
  display.display();
  
  display.setTextSize(2);
  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds
  
  //NEW GAME:
  
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //Write scores:
  player_score = 0; //reset player_score
  enemy_score = 0;  //reset enemy_score
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);
  
  //Display players:
  //void fillRect(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t w, uint16_t h, uint16_t color);
  display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle

  
  //Display the ball:
  display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();

  delay(500); // Pause for 0.5 second  
}

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In the loop, we have three main functions which will be explained in detail below.

void loop() {
  buttons_check();

  move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions();

  move_enemy();
}

In the buttons_check function, we will check if the UP or DOWN button is pressed and update the position of the player's racket accordingly. The racket position change is done in three main steps: Drawing a black rectangle in the old position, changing the position variable, and drawing a white rectangle in the new position.

void buttons_check(){ 
  if (!digitalRead(buttonUP) && !lastButtonStateUP) {
    lastButtonStateUP = true;
//    Serial.println("UP pressed");
    if(player_position_Y > 0){
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
      player_position_Y = player_position_Y-3;
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  }
  if (digitalRead(buttonUP) && lastButtonStateUP) {
    lastButtonStateUP = false;
  }


  if (!digitalRead(buttonDOWN) && !lastButtonStateDOWN) {
    lastButtonStateDOWN = true;
//    Serial.println("DOWN pressed");
    if(player_position_Y < 64-player_width){
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
      player_position_Y = player_position_Y+3;
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  }
  if (digitalRead(buttonDOWN) && lastButtonStateDOWN) {
    lastButtonStateDOWN = false;
  }
}

In the move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions function, we will move the ball and check for collisions with horizontal walls, rackets, and vertical walls (player win or lose). Before moving the wall, we will check the required time passed from the last move of the ball. I have set the required time as ball speed multiplied by twenty. To display the ball we will draw a filled circle. In general, the ball position update will be done in the same way as the racket position update.

To check for collision of the ball with one of the horizontal walls we need to make sure that the add up of ball_position_Y and ball_direction_Y is in the range between 0 and 63 (not less than -1 and not greater than 64). If so, the ball_direction_Y will be reversed.

To check if the player’s racket missed the ball we need to check if ball_position_X is less than player_position_X and start a new round of the game. The same logic for the enemy's racket, only since it is placed on the other side of the field the check will be for more.To check if the player’s racket hit the ball we will check if the ball is inside of the racket. If so, the ball_direction_X will be reversed and a random value for ball_direction_Y will be given.

As always the same logic for hitting the ball with the enemy’s racket.

void move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions(){
  //move th ball:
  if(millis() > ball_speed*20+ball_last_move_time){
    //erase ball on old position:
    display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_BLACK);
    display.display();
    
    //set new posion of the ball:
    ball_position_X = ball_position_X + ball_direction_X;
    
    if(ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y < -1) ball_direction_Y = ball_direction_Y * -1;
    if(ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y > 64) ball_direction_Y = ball_direction_Y * -1;
    
    ball_position_Y = ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y;
    
    //draw ball on new position:
    display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_WHITE);
    display.display();
//    Serial.print("ball_position_Y: "); Serial.println(ball_position_Y);
    ball_last_move_time = millis();

    //Check for player loose:
    if(ball_position_X < player_position_X){
      Serial.println("Player lose!");
      newRound("enemy");//player
    }
    //check for collision of the ball and the player:
    if(player_position_X <= ball_position_X && player_position_X+player_thickness >= ball_position_X
    && player_position_Y <= ball_position_Y && player_position_Y+player_width >= ball_position_Y){
      Serial.println("Collision of the ball and the player");
      //send the ball to enemy with random values:
      ball_direction_X = 3;
      ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
      
    }
    //check for enemy loose:
    if(ball_position_X > enemy_position_X+enemy_thickness){
      Serial.println("Enemy lose!");
      newRound("player");//enemy
    }
    //check for collision of the ball and the enemy:
    if(enemy_position_X <= ball_position_X && enemy_position_X+enemy_thickness >= ball_position_X
    && enemy_position_Y <= ball_position_Y && enemy_position_Y+enemy_width >= ball_position_Y){
      Serial.println("Collision of the ball and the enemy");
      //send the ball to player with random values:
      ball_direction_X = -3;
      ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
      display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  } 
}

As you noticed above, the newRound function takes as input winner (player/enemy). The input is required to increase the appropriate score. In the function, we will reset all the required game-related variables, print updated scores, display all game objects, and if required update the speed of the enemy and ball. The game will become more difficult as you progress through it.

void newRound(String winner){
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //Update scores:
  if(winner == "enemy"){
    enemy_score++;
  }else{
    player_score++;
  }
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);

  //reset gaming vars:
  //player:
  player_position_X = 19; // static
  player_position_Y = 0;
  player_width = 16;
  player_thickness = 4;
  
  //ball:
  ball_position_X = 63;
  ball_position_Y = 31;
  ball_radius = 1;
  //set random direction for th ball:
  
  ball_direction_X = -3;
  ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
  //ball_direction_Y = -5;//test
  ball_last_move_time = 0;
  
  //Display players:
  //void fillRect(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t w, uint16_t h, uint16_t color);
  display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle

  //enemy:
  enemy_position_X = 104; // static
  enemy_position_Y = 47;
  enemy_width = 16;
  enemy_thickness = 4;
  enemy_last_move_time = 0;

  //checking for if we need to update enemy_speed_of_moving and ball_speed
  if((player_score+enemy_score)%5 == 0){
    //5,10,15 and so on
    if(ball_speed > 3) ball_speed = ball_speed - 1; //10,9,8...
    Serial.print("ball_speed: ");Serial.println(ball_speed);
  }
  if((player_score+enemy_score)%10 == 0){
    //10,20,30 and so on
    if(enemy_speed_of_moving > 1) enemy_speed_of_moving = enemy_speed_of_moving * 0.9; //2000,1800,1620,1458...
    Serial.print("enemy_speed_of_moving: ");Serial.println(enemy_speed_of_moving);
  }
  
  delay(500); // Pause for 0.5 seconds
}

Printing scores vertically is a little tricky. So, I decided to split it into a separate function. Each digit of the score will be displayed one by one and the cursor needs to be updated accordingly.

void print_score(int temp_num, int X){ //0/115
  for(int i=48; i>=0; i-=16){
    
    int num = temp_num % 10;
    char cstr[16];
    itoa(num, cstr, 10);
    
    display.setCursor(X, i);
    display.write(cstr);
    display.display();
//    Serial.println(cstr);
    temp_num = temp_num/10;
    if(temp_num==0){
      break;
    }
  }
}

And the last one is moving the enemy racket. It will try to hit the ball. And for this, it will try to equalize its center with the center of the ball. Here we have some supplemental checks to stay the racket inside the screen. In order for such an enemy to be won, its movement speed will be slow in the beginning and will accelerate as the game progresses.

void move_enemy(){
  //enemy:
  if(millis() > enemy_speed_of_moving+enemy_last_move_time){
    display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
    
    if(ball_position_Y < enemy_position_Y+enemy_width/2){
      enemy_position_Y = enemy_position_Y - 3;
    }else{
      enemy_position_Y = enemy_position_Y + 3;
    }

    //checking if enemy is within the wall:
    if(enemy_position_Y > 64-player_width) enemy_position_Y = 64-player_width;
    if(enemy_position_Y < 0) enemy_position_Y = 0;
      
//    Serial.print("enemy_position_Y: "); Serial.println(enemy_position_Y);
    display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    enemy_last_move_time = millis();
  } 
}

Conclusion

I hope you enjoyed both the development of the game and playing the game. The game is familiar to many since childhood and nostalgia are felt when playing. Developers have a unique opportunity to get to know the game not only from the outside, but to see how everything works from the inside.

Here are some ideas for enhancements to the project:

  • Currently, the game is endless. It would be great to implement the Official Rules of Table Tennis to determine a winner.
  • As the speed of the ball increases, make a visual effect so that the ball has a tail.
  • The angle of flight of the ball during the rebound should be made dependent on the place where the ball touches the racket.

I have figured out a way to develop the popular pong game on the Arduino board.

The game is not complicated but interesting to develop and play.

Here 0.96 inch OLED display and two buttons have been used. The display is small but enough for our project. Two buttons will be used to move our racket up and down.

The display size is 128x64 pixels. The first and last 16 pixels will be used to display scores.

The scores will be displayed vertically.

One racket will be controlled by the player, and the second one, the opponent will be controlled by the Arduino. We will write code so that it will try to move towards the ball. At the beginning of the game, it will move slowly, and then, it will gradually accelerate.

We will control the ball direction through ball_direction_X and ball_direction_Y variables. The ball will move in a specified direction each moment. If the ball hits a wall, ball_direction_Y will be reversed and the same logic for ball_direction_X and rackets.

The project code is published on my GitHub ‘Arduino Ping Pong Game’ project page.

Connection

Buttons’ one leg will be connected to the GND. The second legs will be connected to pins 6 and 5 of the Arduino.

The display will be connected by I2C pins: V - 5V, GND - GND, SCL - A5, SDA - A4.

Developing Pong on Arduino

Let’s include libraries and initiate all variables we need. Here we have buttons, scores, player, opponent, and the ball-related variables.

//oled libraries:
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
//oled vars:
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels
#define OLED_RESET     4 // Reset pin # (or -1 if sharing Arduino reset pin)
#define SCREEN_ADDRESS 0x3C ///< See datasheet for Address; 0x3D for 128x64, 0x3C for 128x32
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, OLED_RESET);

//Button pins:
const int buttonUP = 6;
const int buttonDOWN = 5;
//button vars:
int lastButtonStateUP = LOW;   // the previous reading from the input pin
int lastButtonStateDOWN = LOW;   // the previous reading from the input pin
unsigned long debounceDelay = 10;    // the debounce time; increase if the output flickers

//GAME vars:
//scores:
int player_score = 0;
int enemy_score = 0;

//player:
int player_position_X = 19; // static
int player_position_Y = 0;
int player_width = 16;
int player_thickness = 4;

//enemy:
int enemy_position_X = 104; // static
int enemy_position_Y = 47;
int enemy_width = 16;
int enemy_thickness = 4;
long enemy_last_move_time = 0;
long enemy_speed_of_moving = 2000;//update time in ms


//ball:
//void fillCircle(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t r, uint16_t color);
int ball_position_X = 63;
int ball_position_Y = 31;
int ball_radius = 1;
int ball_direction_X = 3;
int ball_direction_Y = 3;
int ball_speed = 8;//9,8,7...1
long ball_last_move_time = 0;

In the setup, we will initiate buttons, Serial, randomSeed, and display. After that, we will show a starter screen and start the game:

void setup() {
  pinMode(buttonUP, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(buttonDOWN, INPUT_PULLUP);

  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Start");

  //initiate random
  randomSeed(analogRead(0));
  ball_direction_X = -3;
  ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
  //ball_direction_Y = -5;//test

  
  // SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC = generate display voltage from 3.3V internally
  if(!display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, SCREEN_ADDRESS)) {
    Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed"));
    for(;;); // Don't proceed, loop forever
  }

  // Show initial display buffer contents on the screen --
  // the library initializes this with an Adafruit splash screen.
  display.display();
  
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //scores field init:
  display.setTextSize(2);    
  display.setTextColor(SSD1306_WHITE); // Draw white text

  player_score = 8888; // test
  enemy_score = 8888; // test
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);
  
  display.setTextSize(3);
  display.setCursor(28, 0);
  display.write("Ping");
  display.setCursor(28, 31);
  display.write("Pong");
  display.display();
  
  display.setTextSize(2);
  delay(2000); // Pause for 2 seconds
  
  //NEW GAME:
  
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //Write scores:
  player_score = 0; //reset player_score
  enemy_score = 0;  //reset enemy_score
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);
  
  //Display players:
  //void fillRect(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t w, uint16_t h, uint16_t color);
  display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle

  
  //Display the ball:
  display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();

  delay(500); // Pause for 0.5 second  
}

image

In the loop, we have three main functions which will be explained in detail below.

void loop() {
  buttons_check();

  move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions();

  move_enemy();
}

In the buttons_check function, we will check if the UP or DOWN button is pressed and update the position of the player's racket accordingly. The racket position change is done in three main steps: Drawing a black rectangle in the old position, changing the position variable, and drawing a white rectangle in the new position.

void buttons_check(){ 
  if (!digitalRead(buttonUP) && !lastButtonStateUP) {
    lastButtonStateUP = true;
//    Serial.println("UP pressed");
    if(player_position_Y > 0){
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
      player_position_Y = player_position_Y-3;
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  }
  if (digitalRead(buttonUP) && lastButtonStateUP) {
    lastButtonStateUP = false;
  }


  if (!digitalRead(buttonDOWN) && !lastButtonStateDOWN) {
    lastButtonStateDOWN = true;
//    Serial.println("DOWN pressed");
    if(player_position_Y < 64-player_width){
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
      player_position_Y = player_position_Y+3;
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  }
  if (digitalRead(buttonDOWN) && lastButtonStateDOWN) {
    lastButtonStateDOWN = false;
  }
}

In the move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions function, we will move the ball and check for collisions with horizontal walls, rackets, and vertical walls (player win or lose). Before moving the wall, we will check the required time passed from the last move of the ball. I have set the required time as ball speed multiplied by twenty. To display the ball we will draw a filled circle. In general, the ball position update will be done in the same way as the racket position update.

To check for collision of the ball with one of the horizontal walls we need to make sure that the add up of ball_position_Y and ball_direction_Y is in the range between 0 and 63 (not less than -1 and not greater than 64). If so, the ball_direction_Y will be reversed.

To check if the player’s racket missed the ball we need to check if ball_position_X is less than player_position_X and start a new round of the game. The same logic for the enemy's racket, only since it is placed on the other side of the field the check will be for more.To check if the player’s racket hit the ball we will check if the ball is inside of the racket. If so, the ball_direction_X will be reversed and a random value for ball_direction_Y will be given.

As always the same logic for hitting the ball with the enemy’s racket.

void move_the_ball_and_check_for_collisions(){
  //move th ball:
  if(millis() > ball_speed*20+ball_last_move_time){
    //erase ball on old position:
    display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_BLACK);
    display.display();
    
    //set new posion of the ball:
    ball_position_X = ball_position_X + ball_direction_X;
    
    if(ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y < -1) ball_direction_Y = ball_direction_Y * -1;
    if(ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y > 64) ball_direction_Y = ball_direction_Y * -1;
    
    ball_position_Y = ball_position_Y + ball_direction_Y;
    
    //draw ball on new position:
    display.fillCircle(ball_position_X, ball_position_Y, ball_radius, SSD1306_WHITE);
    display.display();
//    Serial.print("ball_position_Y: "); Serial.println(ball_position_Y);
    ball_last_move_time = millis();

    //Check for player loose:
    if(ball_position_X < player_position_X){
      Serial.println("Player lose!");
      newRound("enemy");//player
    }
    //check for collision of the ball and the player:
    if(player_position_X <= ball_position_X && player_position_X+player_thickness >= ball_position_X
    && player_position_Y <= ball_position_Y && player_position_Y+player_width >= ball_position_Y){
      Serial.println("Collision of the ball and the player");
      //send the ball to enemy with random values:
      ball_direction_X = 3;
      ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
      display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
      
    }
    //check for enemy loose:
    if(ball_position_X > enemy_position_X+enemy_thickness){
      Serial.println("Enemy lose!");
      newRound("player");//enemy
    }
    //check for collision of the ball and the enemy:
    if(enemy_position_X <= ball_position_X && enemy_position_X+enemy_thickness >= ball_position_X
    && enemy_position_Y <= ball_position_Y && enemy_position_Y+enemy_width >= ball_position_Y){
      Serial.println("Collision of the ball and the enemy");
      //send the ball to player with random values:
      ball_direction_X = -3;
      ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
      display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
      display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    }
  } 
}

As you noticed above, the newRound function takes as input winner (player/enemy). The input is required to increase the appropriate score. In the function, we will reset all the required game-related variables, print updated scores, display all game objects, and if required update the speed of the enemy and ball. The game will become more difficult as you progress through it.

void newRound(String winner){
  // Clear the buffer
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  //draw lines:
  display.drawLine(16,  0,  16, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.drawLine(111, 0, 111, 63, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display();
  
  //Update scores:
  if(winner == "enemy"){
    enemy_score++;
  }else{
    player_score++;
  }
  print_score(player_score, 0);
  print_score(enemy_score, 115);

  //reset gaming vars:
  //player:
  player_position_X = 19; // static
  player_position_Y = 0;
  player_width = 16;
  player_thickness = 4;
  
  //ball:
  ball_position_X = 63;
  ball_position_Y = 31;
  ball_radius = 1;
  //set random direction for th ball:
  
  ball_direction_X = -3;
  ball_direction_Y = random(-5, 5);
  //ball_direction_Y = -5;//test
  ball_last_move_time = 0;
  
  //Display players:
  //void fillRect(uint16_t x0, uint16_t y0, uint16_t w, uint16_t h, uint16_t color);
  display.fillRect(player_position_X, player_position_Y, player_thickness, player_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
  display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle

  //enemy:
  enemy_position_X = 104; // static
  enemy_position_Y = 47;
  enemy_width = 16;
  enemy_thickness = 4;
  enemy_last_move_time = 0;

  //checking for if we need to update enemy_speed_of_moving and ball_speed
  if((player_score+enemy_score)%5 == 0){
    //5,10,15 and so on
    if(ball_speed > 3) ball_speed = ball_speed - 1; //10,9,8...
    Serial.print("ball_speed: ");Serial.println(ball_speed);
  }
  if((player_score+enemy_score)%10 == 0){
    //10,20,30 and so on
    if(enemy_speed_of_moving > 1) enemy_speed_of_moving = enemy_speed_of_moving * 0.9; //2000,1800,1620,1458...
    Serial.print("enemy_speed_of_moving: ");Serial.println(enemy_speed_of_moving);
  }
  
  delay(500); // Pause for 0.5 seconds
}

Printing scores vertically is a little tricky. So, I decided to split it into a separate function. Each digit of the score will be displayed one by one and the cursor needs to be updated accordingly.

void print_score(int temp_num, int X){ //0/115
  for(int i=48; i>=0; i-=16){
    
    int num = temp_num % 10;
    char cstr[16];
    itoa(num, cstr, 10);
    
    display.setCursor(X, i);
    display.write(cstr);
    display.display();
//    Serial.println(cstr);
    temp_num = temp_num/10;
    if(temp_num==0){
      break;
    }
  }
}

And the last one is moving the enemy racket. It will try to hit the ball. And for this, it will try to equalize its center with the center of the ball. Here we have some supplemental checks to stay the racket inside the screen. In order for such an enemy to be won, its movement speed will be slow in the beginning and will accelerate as the game progresses.

void move_enemy(){
  //enemy:
  if(millis() > enemy_speed_of_moving+enemy_last_move_time){
    display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_BLACK);
    
    if(ball_position_Y < enemy_position_Y+enemy_width/2){
      enemy_position_Y = enemy_position_Y - 3;
    }else{
      enemy_position_Y = enemy_position_Y + 3;
    }

    //checking if enemy is within the wall:
    if(enemy_position_Y > 64-player_width) enemy_position_Y = 64-player_width;
    if(enemy_position_Y < 0) enemy_position_Y = 0;
      
//    Serial.print("enemy_position_Y: "); Serial.println(enemy_position_Y);
    display.fillRect(enemy_position_X, enemy_position_Y, enemy_thickness, enemy_width, SSD1306_WHITE);
    display.display(); // Update screen with each newly-drawn rectangle
    enemy_last_move_time = millis();
  } 
}

Conclusion

I hope you enjoyed both the development of the game and playing the game. The game is familiar to many since childhood and nostalgia are felt when playing. Developers have a unique opportunity to get to know the game not only from the outside, but to see how everything works from the inside.

Here are some ideas for enhancements to the project:

  • Currently, the game is endless. It would be great to implement the Official Rules of Table Tennis to determine a winner.
  • As the speed of the ball increases, make a visual effect so that the ball has a tail.
  • The angle of flight of the ball during the rebound should be made dependent on the place where the ball touches the racket.

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