Setup your own private Proof-of-Authority Ethereum network with Geth by@ethervolution

Setup your own private Proof-of-Authority Ethereum network with Geth

February 7th 2018 56,073 reads
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February 2018.


  1. geth 1.8 was released a few days after this guide was published and fortunately does not break anything. This post is then valid and was tested for both geth 1.7.3 and geth 1.8. Awesome :)
  2. I’ve learned a posteriori that the gas limit per block is dynamic. Therefore I’ve updated the section 2.3 to give more information about this particular case. In my private network where blocks are most of the time empty, I don’t what the gas limit to decrease at all !
  3. Clique requires int(N/2+1) sealers (where N is the number of sealers defined in the genesis file — in extraData field) to be online in order to run.
  4. thx to Ivica Aracic for pointing out that clique PoA DOES WORK with a single node. For any reason I missed that and I apologize for the confusion. With a single node, we just need (A) create genesis file with only one sealer (only 1 address in extraData ) (B) create an account (C) init geth (D) run geth, unlock account and mine. No bootnode is required then.
  5. with geth 1.8 if you get the error “invalid host specified”, try adding the option --rpcvhosts value to the geth command. See geth --help

Goal: step by step guide to help you setup a local private ethereum network using the Proof-of-Authority consensus engine (also named clique).

In a nutshell: we will setup two nodes on the same machine, creating a peer-to-peer network on our localhost. In addition to the two nodes, a bootnode (discovery service) will also be setup.

It took me quite some time and extensive research and googling to finally have a solid ethereum development environment for testing my smart contracts and my DApps.

In this post, I’ve decided to share how I am setting a Proof-of-Authority network using the clique consensus engine of Geth. It’s my way to thank the community by giving back and hopefully making life easier for anyone willing exploring the Ethereum universe.

OS and Software

My OS is Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (this tuto was done in a fresh virtual machine).

For the Ethereum client, I am using Geth (the Go implementation of the Ethereum protocole). I believe that Geth is easy to install with plenty of great tutorials out there, so I am not gonna cover any installation here. I am currently running Geth 1.7.3-stable:

$ geth versionGethVersion: 1.7.3-stableGit Commit: 4bb3c89d44e372e6a9ab85a8be0c9345265c763aArchitecture: amd64Protocol Versions: [63 62]

and Geth 1.8.1-stable

$ geth versionGethVersion: 1.8.1-stableGit Commit: 1e67410e88d2685bc54611a7c9f75c327b553cccArchitecture: amd64Protocol Versions: [63 62]

I strongly recommend to check the Geth Command Line Interface documentation. You’re gonna need it. A lot.

1. Let’s get started

1.0 overview

Let’s start by the end… For clarity, this is what you are supposed to get when you will have completed Chapter 1.

devnet$ tree -L 2.├── accounts.txt├── boot.key├── genesis.json├── node1│ ├── geth│ ├── keystore│ └── password.txt└── node2├── geth├── keystore└── password.txt

1.1 create a workspace

$ mkdir devnet$ cd devnetdevnet$ mkdir node1 node2

1.2 create your accounts

The accounts (also called wallet) hold a private-public key pair that are required for interacting with any blockchain. Any mining node (strictly speaking our nodes will not be mining but voting) needs to be able to sign transactions (using their private key) and to identify itself on the network (the address is derived from the public key). Therefore we need at least two accounts, one per node.

In Geth jargon, a voting node is called a Sealer.

for node 1 :

devnet$ geth --datadir node1/ account newYour new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.Passphrase: pwdnode1 (for example)Repeat passphrase: pwdnode1Address: {87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6}

for node 2 :

devnet$ geth --datadir node2/ account newYour new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.Passphrase: pwdnode2 (for example)Repeat passphrase: pwdnode2Address: {08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0}

This creates the keystore/ folder containing your account file. Notice that the last part of the file name in keystore/ is the address of your account (also printed in the terminal just above).

I suggest to copy these two addresses from the terminal screen and to save them in a text file. That will ease some copy-pasting job later on. However remember that you can read those addesses from the UTC-datetime-address file in keystore/.

devnet$ echo '87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6' >> accounts.txtdevnet$ echo '08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0' >> accounts.txt

For each node, I propose to save your password in a file. That will ease some process for later on (such as unlocking your account)

devnet$ echo 'pwdnode1' > node1/password.txtdevnet$ echo 'pwdnode2' > node2/password.txt

1.3 create your Genesis file

A genesis file is the file used to initialize the blockchain. The very first block, called the genesis block, is crafted based on the parameters in the genesis.json file.

Geth comes with a bunch of exectuables such as puppeth or bootnode . You can find the complete list on the Geth github. Puppeth removes the pain of creating a genesis file from scratch (and does much more). Start puppeth :

devnet$ puppeth

and happily answer the questions (every value can be updated by hand later on, so don’t spent too much time engineering it for your first trials).

Please specify a network name to administer (no spaces, please)> devnetWhat would you like to do? (default = stats)

  1. Show network stats
  2. Configure new genesis
  3. Track new remote server

  4. Deploy network components> 2

Which consensus engine to use? (default = clique)

  1. Ethash - proof-of-work

  2. Clique - proof-of-authority> 2

How many seconds should blocks take? (default = 15)> 5 // for example

Which accounts are allowed to seal? (mandatory at least one)> 0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6 //copy paste from account.txt :)> 0x08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0

Which accounts should be pre-funded? (advisable at least one)> 0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6 // free ethers !> 0x08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0

Specify your chain/network ID if you want an explicit one (default = random)> 1515 // for example. Do not use anything from 1 to 10

Anything fun to embed into the genesis block? (max 32 bytes)>

What would you like to do? (default = stats)

  1. Show network stats
  2. Manage existing genesis
  3. Track new remote server

  4. Deploy network components> 2

1. Modify existing fork rules2. Export genesis configuration> 2

Which file to save the genesis into? (default = devnet.json)> genesis.jsonINFO [01-23|15:16:17] Exported existing genesis block

What would you like to do? (default = stats)

  1. Show network stats
  2. Manage existing genesis
  3. Track new remote server

  4. Deploy network components> ^C // ctrl+C to quit puppeth

Side note : from Clique PoA EIP#225

PoA doesn’t have mining rewards

So I would highly suggest that you allocate some ethers (defined in the unit of wei) to a bunch of addresses in the genesis file, otherwise you’ll hand up without any ether and thus will not be able to pay for your transactions. You could have a gasPrice of zero but that sometimes leads to undesired behavior from the nodes that could go under the radar (like not broadcasting pending transaction depending on the config of the other nodes on the network). I encourage you nevertheless to play with every parameter :)

1.4 Initialize your nodes

Now that we have the genesis.json file, let’s forge the genesis block ! Each node MUST be initialize with the SAME genesis file.

devnet$ geth --datadir node1/ init genesis.jsondevnet$ geth --datadir node2/ init genesis.json

tada ! done.

Side note : how does your node know about the genesis parameters when joining the Ethereum Mainnet or the Ropsten testnet, or the Rinkeby testnet ? They are already defined in the source code in params/config.go.

1.5 Create a bootnode

A bootnode only purpose is to helping nodes discovering each others (remember, the Ethereum blockchain is a peer-to-peer network). Nodes could have dynamic IP, being turned off, and on again. The bootnode is usually ran on a static IP and thus acts like a pub where nodes know they will find their mates.

Initialize the bootnode :

devnet$ bootnode -genkey boot.key

This creates a value called the enode uniquely identifying your bootnode (more on this soon) and we store this enode in the boot.key file.

1.6 Midway celebration

Congrats ! Chapter 1 is done :) try

devnet$ tree -L 2

and compare the output with the section 1.0. Hopefully you should get the same tree.

At this point the setup is done and we are ready to make this blockchain live.

2. Make it live

2.1 Start the bootnode service

devnet$ bootnode -nodekey boot.key -verbosity 9 -addr :30310INFO [02-07|22:44:09] UDP listener up self=enode://3ec4fef2d726c2c01f16f0a0030f15dd5a81e274067af2b2157cafbf76aa79fa9[email protected][::]:30310

I like to have some verbosity for my bootnode as it is nice to see when the nodes are playing ping-pong on the network (meaning it’s working!).

Feel free to use any port you like but please avoid the mainstream ones (like 80 for HTTP). 30303 is used for the public ethereum networks.

2.2 Starting your nodes

Big time ! Finally (but usually here the troubles arrive too).

Everything in one huge command ! I am gonna cover some options but please do your homework and refer to the doc.

starting node 1

devnet$ geth --datadir node1/ --syncmode 'full' --port 30311 --rpc --rpcaddr 'localhost' --rpcport 8501 --rpcapi 'personal,db,eth,net,web3,txpool,miner' --bootnodes 'enode://3ec4fef2d726c2c01f16f0a0030f15dd5a81e274067af2b2157cafbf76aa79fa9[email protected]' --networkid 1515 --gasprice '1' -unlock '0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6' --password node1/password.txt --mine

  • --syncmode 'full' helps preventing the error Discarded Bad Propagated Block.
  • --port 30311 is the enode port for node1 and has to be different from the bootnode port (that is 30310 if you followed my command) because we are on a localhost. On a real network (one node per machine), use the same port.
  • --rpcapi allows the listed modules to be used over RPC calls (see section 3.3 for an example). See the Geth Management APIs for more info. Be mindful about hacks as everyone can call your RPC methods if no firewall is protecting your node.
  • --bootnodes tells your node at what address to find your bootnode. Replace [::] with the bootnode IP. No domain name are allowed ! Only IPs. Check enode URL format.
  • --networkId as defined in the genesis.json file. Please use the same id !
  • --gasprice '1' I don’t like to pay on my own network :) be careful with gasprice. If your transactions are not being broadcasted to the network but only the node receiving the transactions is processing them, this means you sent a transaction with a gasprice that is not accepted (too low) by the other nodes on the network. No error will be return. If you have two nodes, only one will be processing the transactions. This is sneaky and reduces your network throughput by a factor 2.
  • --unlock --password --mine tell the node to unlock this account, with the password in that file and to start mining (i.e. voting/sealing for Proof-of-Authority)
  • --targetgaslimit value see the update in section 2.3.

same for node 2 (update parameters specific to the node)

devnet$ geth --datadir node2/ --syncmode 'full' --port 30312 --rpc --rpcaddr 'localhost' --rpcport 8502 --rpcapi 'personal,db,eth,net,web3,txpool,miner' --bootnodes 'enode://3ec4fef2d726c2c01f16f0a0030f15dd5a81e274067af2b2157cafbf76aa79fa9[email protected]' --networkid 1515 --gasprice '0' --unlock '0x08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0' --password node2/password.txt --mine

At this point your bootnode should stream connections coming from node1 (port 30311) and node2 (port 30312) as shown in the upper terminal window. Node1 (middle terminal) and node2 (lower terminal) should be happily mining and signing blocks. Here I have a period of 1 second (defined in the genesis file) therefore the fast block creation.


2.3 Update your genesis file

I am sure you’ll want to modify some values in your genesis file. Go ahead ! However in order for those changes to become effective, we have to initialize a new blockchain. Here is the genesis file I am currently using :

{"config": {"chainId": 1515,"homesteadBlock": 1,"eip150Block": 2,"eip150Hash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","eip155Block": 3,"eip158Block": 3,"byzantiumBlock": 4,"clique": {"period": 1,"epoch": 30000}},"nonce": "0x0","timestamp": "0x5a722c92","extraData": "0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000008a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b087366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e60000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","gasLimit": "0x59A5380","difficulty": "0x1","mixHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000","alloc": {"08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0": {"balance": "0x200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"},"87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6": {"balance": "0x200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"},"F464A67CA59606f0fFE159092FF2F474d69FD675": {"balance": "0x200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"}},"number": "0x0","gasUsed": "0x0","parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"}

I’ve cleaned the empty addresses that puppeth includes when creating the file (at section 1.3). I’ve also added a third address that gets funded when the genesis block is created. Then I have changed the period from 15 second to 1 to get those blocks mined faster (be careful as one empty block weights 1024 bytes — here my chaindata/ folder gains 1024 bytes per second (and more if the blocks are not empty). Finally I’ve increased the gasLimit to allow for more transaction (trully speaking, computation) per block.

update: The gasLimit defined in the genesis file only applies to the genesis block ! The gasLimit of new blocks is DYNAMIC meaning its value is changing over time depending on how much gas was used in the parent (previous) block. The computation of the new gasLimit is done in the function CalcGasLimit (github source). If you want a constant gas Limit use the option --targetgaslimit intValue when running geth. I would recommend to set it equal to the gasLimit in the genesis file (the command option is an integer whereas the genesis value is hexadecimal) so that you get a constant gas limit that does not change over time anymore. Given the genesis file above with "gasLimit":"0x59A5380" , I am running my node with --targetgaslimit 94000000 for a constant gas limit across all blocks.

The field extraData contains the address that are allowed to seal (that’s why puppeth is nice to have).

I have investigate the impact of changing the period and the gasLimit on the number of transaction per second (transaction rate) that the blockchain can process. But that’s gonna be another article; link here.

When you are happy with your genesis file. Kill your nodes if they are running (ctrl C in the terminal). Then delete the folder geth/ in node1/ and geht/ in node2/ . Delete only geth/ folders!

Then initialize your nodes. From section 1.4 :

devnet$ geth --datadir node1/ init genesis.jsondevnet$ geth --datadir node2/ init genesis.json

and start your nodes again with the commands in section 2.2

3. Interact with your nodes

Great your network is now live :) but how to connect to it and starting exploring ?

3.1 Open a Geth Javascript Console

The simplest and probably more straight forward way to play with a node is probably to attach a Geth javascript console to one of the nodes.

3.1.1 Through IPC

IPC (Inter-Process Communication) works only locally : you should be on the same machine as your node. Open an extra terminal and attach to your node. To connect to node1 :

$ cd devnetdevnet$ geth attach node1/geth.ipcWelcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9coinbase: 0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6at block: 901 (Sat, 10 Feb 2018 21:15:30 CET)datadir: /home/salanfe/privateNetworks/devnet/node1modules: admin:1.0 clique:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0


The file geth.ipc is created only when the node is running. So do not expect to find it if your node1 is off.

RPC gives access without restriction to all modules listed in the terminal : admin: 1.0 clique:1.0 debug:1.0 eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0

3.1.2 Through RPC

RPC (Remote Procedure Call) works over the internet as HTTP requests. Therefore be careful when you open RPC to the outside world as everyone will have access to your node. For this reason RPC is disabled by default and when enabled it does not give access to all modules. In this guide we allowed RPC on our Geth node with the command --rpc and gave access to the modules personal,db,eth,net,web3,txpool,miner (from section 2.2). To connect to node1 using RPC :

$ cd devnetdevnet$ geth attach 'http://localhost:8501'Welcome to the Geth JavaScript console!

instance: Geth/v1.7.3-stable-4bb3c89d/linux-amd64/go1.9coinbase: 0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6at block: 945 (Sat, 10 Feb 2018 21:16:14 CET)modules: eth:1.0 miner:1.0 net:1.0 personal:1.0 rpc:1.0 txpool:1.0 web3:1.0


3.1.3 Using the Geth Javascript Console

Here are some examples of methods

> net.version"1515"> eth.blockNumber1910> eth.coinbase"0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6"> eth.sendTransaction({'from':eth.coinbase, 'to':'0x08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0', 'value':web3.toWei(3, 'ether')})"0x299a99baa1b39bdee5f02e3c660e19e744f81c2e886b5fc24aa83f92fe100d3f"> eth.getTransactionReceipt("0x299a99baa1b39bdee5f02e3c660e19e744f81c2e886b5fc24aa83f92fe100d3f"){blockHash: "0x212fb593980bd42fcaf3f6d1e6db2dd86d3764df8cac2d90408f481ae7830de8",blockNumber: 2079,contractAddress: null,cumulativeGasUsed: 21000,from: "0x87366ef81db496edd0ea2055ca605e8686eec1e6",gasUsed: 21000,logs: [],logsBloom: "0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",status: "0x1",to: "0x08a58f09194e403d02a1928a7bf78646cfc260b0",transactionHash: "0x299a99baa1b39bdee5f02e3c660e19e744f81c2e886b5fc24aa83f92fe100d3f",transactionIndex: 0}> exit // to quit the Geth javascript console

for the full list of methods, see Management APIs and JSON RPC API.

3.2 Using Mist

The Mist browser provides a graphical user interface for deploying and interacting with smart contracts and managing accounts. To connect Mist to your local private network over IPC, simply do :

devnet$ mist --rpc node1/geth.ipc

and over RPC (make sure RPC is enabled)

$ mist --rpc 'http://localhost:8501'

The procedure is exactly the same if you want to use the Ethereum wallet instead of mist. Just replace mist by ethereumwallet in the commands above.

3.3 Making RPC calls with your favorite programming language

In section 3.1, we saw how to interact with the Geth API by hand. Now let’s use our PC for what it is best at : automation.

The reference and by far for sending JSON-RPC requests to your node is the web3.js javascript library. I believe the internet of full of great tutorial and example on how to use the web3.js library. Therefore I am not gonna covert any of it here.

The JSON-RPC APIs are currently also being implemented in java with the web3.j library and in python with the library. Those libraries offer high-level methods for working with the ethereum blockchain just like web3.js.

However, it’s also possible to send raw JSON-RPC requests directly to your node. I think it is worth trying as it’s providing a valuable understanding on how those high-level libraries work under the hood.

Here is a simple example of sending a raw JSON-RPC request to my node using python 3 :

$ pythonPython 3.6.4 |Anaconda custom (64-bit)| (default, Jan 16 2018, 18:10:19)[GCC 7.2.0] on linuxType "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.>>> import requests>>> import json>>> session = requests.Session()>>> method = 'eth_getTransactionCount'>>> params = ["0x627306090abaB3A6e1400e9345bC60c78a8BEf57","latest"]>>> PAYLOAD = {"jsonrpc":"2.0",... "method":method,... "params":params,... "id":67}>>> PAYLOAD = json.dumps(PAYLOAD)>>> headers = {'Content-type': 'application/json'}>>> response ='', data=PAYLOAD, headers=headers)>>> response.contentb'{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":67,"result":"0x0"}\n'>>> json.loads(response.content)['result']'0x0'

The method geth_transactionCount is documented here.

The “account” nonce is a transaction counter and has nothing to do with the nonce for Proof-of-Work. A account nonce of zero means that the address 0x627306090abaB3A6e1400e9345bC60c78a8BEf57 never did any transaction on the network : 0x0 is the hexadecimal representation of zero.

3.4 Deploy and test your smart contracts with Truffle on your private network

Development frameworks like Truffle (or Embark, Populus) are great tools for developing and testing smart contracts.

When you initialize a workspace with

$ truffle init

Truffle creates a series of files and folders to help you get started. I usually edit the truffle.js file as such

module.exports = {// See <>// to customize your Truffle configuration!networks: {devnet: {host: '',port: 8501,network_id: '*'},ganache: {host: '',port: 7545,network_id: '*'}}};

then use the command

$ truffle deploy --network devnet

to deploy your smart contracts defined in migrations/X_deploy.js . Or for running your tests in test/

$ truffle test --network devnet

Usually the Ethereum Blockchain simulator Ganache is more than enough for running your tests. However I like to use my private blockchain for ultimate testing on a real node and not only on a simulator. With Ganache I believe that the layer of abstraction is too big, what is the beauty of it but also a danger as it requires no understanding what so ever of the complexity of a real node (transaction pool, gasPrice, gasLimit, broadcasting transactions between nodes, mining or voting, computation time, consensus engine, etc.).

What’s next ?

That’s pretty much it for this guide. If you understand everything here I believe you’re already on very good tracks and you have a solid foundation on which you can continue your journey with confidence.

You can start developing Dapps (Decentralized Applications) by grabbing a web3 library or by making your own custom JSON-RPC wrapper.

In this post, I explore how to use python for deploying and transacting with a smart contract using only raw HTTP requests.

Ethereum: create raw JSON-RPC requests with Python for deploying and transacting with a smart…_February

Final Words

Congratulation if you made it until the end. I hope this guide is comprehensive and helped you on your journey. I welcome any feedback to improve this guide !

And a BIG Thank you to the community for all the documentation, tutorials, Q&A websites and guides out there.

Happy Hacking !

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