Dick & Carey Model: Understanding Instructional System Design  by@onyawoibi

Dick & Carey Model: Understanding Instructional System Design

The 9 Steps of the Model: 1. Determine your educational goals.  2. Conduct instructional analysis.  3. Examine Learners and  context.  4. Develop performance objectives.  5. Develop Assessment tools.  6.Develop instructional strategies.  7.Develop and select learning materials.  8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction.  9. Revise instruction 
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Celine Aju

Script Writer @ Street School Education Tutor Experience Manager @ Tuteria

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The Dick and Carey model, like the Kemp model, emphasizes the interdependence of design elements. Context, content, learning, and instruction are the elements identified by Dick and Carey. The instructor, learners, resources, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning, according to Dick and Carey, all work together to achieve the desired results.

Table of Contents:

  1. Dick & Carey Model Explained
  2. The 9 Steps of the Model
  3. Determine your educational goals
  4. Conduct instructional analysis
  5. Examine Learners and  context
  6. Develop performance objectives
  7. Develop Assessment tools
  8. Develop instructional strategies
  9. Develop and select learning materials
  10. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction
  11. Revise instruction

Dick & Carrey Instructional Design Model

Based on the research of Walter Dick of Florida State University and Lou and James Carey of the University of South Florida, the Dick and Carey Model is an instructional systems design (ISD) model that takes a systems approach.


Also referred to as the Systems approach model, it is a 9 step process for designing effective learning initiatives. This model depicts all steps of an iterative process that begins with the identification of educational goals and ends with summative assessment.


There are nine steps in the model:


  • Determine learning objectives by assessing needs.

  • Conduct an instructional analysis, or a search for the skills, information, and attitudes that students will need to succeed.

  • Examine the learners and their environments.

  • Based on the instructional analysis, create performance objectives.

  • Create evaluation instruments to test learners' abilities to complete the step 4 objectives.

  • Develop an instructional approach that includes activities such as pre-instructional activities, instruction, practice and feedback, testing, and follow-up.

  • Create and choose educational resources, such as a learner's manual, instructor's instructions, multimedia, and evaluations.

  • To figure out how to improve instruction, create and execute a formative assessment. This evaluation can be conducted one-on-one, in a small group, or in the field.

  • Based on the information gathered in step 8, revise the instructions.


Despite the fact that it is not part of the ISD paradigm, Dick, Carey, and Carey recommend that following training, a summative assessment be conducted to determine "the absolute and/or relative value or usefulness of the instruction." This is usually referred as the 10th step of the model.


Dick and Carey  identified the following systematic features of their model:


  • Goal-directed: all of the system's components work together to achieve a certain goal.
  • Interdependencies: For input and output, all of the system's components rely on one another.
  • Feedback Mechanism: The entire system relies on input to assess whether the aim has been met.
  • Self-regulating: The system will be tweaked until it achieves the intended result.

The 9 steps of the Dick & Carey  Model

  1. Determine your educational objectives.

Your educational objectives define where you wish to go. When establishing them, keep in mind your organization's strategic goals, be specific about what learners will be able to do or how they will act when your program has been completed, and concentrate on real-world skills and behaviors.


  1. Analyze the learning environment

Conducting instructional analysis is the second stage of the Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model.  The existing status of skills and knowledge in your learning population, as well as the gap between them and your goals, are determined by your instructional analysis. Depending on the nature of the talents, this can be assessed by interviews, surveys, observation, or various forms of testing.

  1. Identify entry Behaviours.

You must understand your learning population's habits, traits, degrees of motivation, and other aspects that will influence their learning journey in addition to examining their existing level of knowledge. This knowledge will assist you in developing effective learning strategies.


  1. Make a list of performance goals.

Learning objectives should be SMART, laying out the tasks and procedures that must be learned as well as how they will be evaluated. In education, these are referred to as "SWBAT" (Student Will Be Able To).


  1. Create criterion tests.

You'll need to create criterion-specific exams to track and prove both progress and efficacy of education. These should be in the appropriate format and level for your target audience.


  1. Create a teaching strategy.

Define your instructional plan only after you've determined your goals, current status, gap, objectives, and testing technique. It should be based on your research and incorporate suitable learning theories.


  1. Create and choose educational materials.

After you've determined your learning approach, you should decide on materials, tools, exercises, and delivery methods. Face-to-face, group-based, assisted, or online learning resources are all possibilities.


  1. Formative evaluation should be developed and implemented.

The Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model's penultimate stage is to construct and undertake formative evaluation.


Formative evaluation is the process of determining how well you have articulated your learning effort. Review, focus groups, segment testing, and piloting your learning program are all ways to get this information. The information gathered should be used to improve the effort.


  1. Develop and implement a summative evaluation system.

Summative evaluation occurs after your program has been delivered and is used to determine its effectiveness. Is the program meeting the expectations of your participants? Has it resulted in a gain in knowledge and skills? Has the company reaped any benefits as a result of it?

More in Instructional Design

  1. New Models of Instructional Design
  2. 9 steps to apply Dick & Carey Model
  3. Dick and carey`s Model


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