The ADDIE Training Model of Instructional Design: An In-Depth Analysisby@onyawoibi
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The ADDIE Training Model of Instructional Design: An In-Depth Analysis

by Celine “Oibiee” Aju January 31st, 2022
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ADDIE is an instructional design training model that helps instructors think through the design of a course. It is described as a linear 5-step framework used to design and develop educational and training programs. ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

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Instructional design models are strategies used to explain the design and development process for educating. The ADDIE model is historically the oldest instructional design model, but it has not lost relevance in today's world of instructional design.

Most instructional designers describe the ADDIE model as having the five core elements for designing any learning solution - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

What is ADDIE? 

ADDIE is an instructional design training model that helps instructors think through the design of a course. It is described as a linear 5-step framework used to design and develop educational and training programs. It was developed at Florida State University in the 1970s. The primary goal of ADDIE is to improve human performance. 

ADDIE is an acronym.

ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each letter represents a stage, phase, or step in the process of creating a learning material or program.


This is the foundation for all other phases of instructional design. The instructional problem is clarified at this phase, as are the instructional goals and objectives, as well as the learning environment and the learners' prior knowledge and abilities. It can be described as the “Goal-Setting Phase’.

During this phase, the instructional designer distinguishes what the learners already know from what they should know after utilizing the learning material. The focus during this stage is understanding the needs of the target audience.

The analysis phase typically addresses these questions:

  • What is the learning background of the target audience?
  • What is the expected end goal of the course/ training?
  • What does the target audience need to reach this goal? 
  • What strategies and material can be used to reach the desired learning outcome?
  • What is the most conducive learning environment for this course/training? 
  • What limitations exist with regards to achieving the learning outcomes?

The analysis is a broad aspect of the instructional design process, it has different aspects and stages such as training needs assessment which is used to determine if training is part of the solution to the performance problem.

Once this has been determined, learner analysis, job-task analysis, and instructional context analysis will be conducted. They are essential in gathering information for the training material.

Training Needs Assessment 

The training requirements assessment is one of the most important activities to do while performing instructional design duties. This evaluation determines whether or not training is required to resolve the problem at hand. The requirements analysis is done to determine what is causing the target audience's performance concerns.  

A needs assessment can be conducted via interviews, direct observation, questionnaires, and focus group sessions.

The training needs assessment answers two questions 

  • What is the cause of the performance decline or unsatisfactory performance? 
  • How can performance be improved? 

Job Task Analysis 

The goal of the job task analysis is to design activities that address the highest priority behaviors. 

The required information from this analysis is:

  • The tasks must employees perform to satisfy certain aspects of their jobs; 
  • How often must these tasks be performed;
  • How difficult each task is; and 
  • How important each task is. 

Learner Analysis 

This involves gathering relevant attributes of the learners that are relevant to the organization and the overall training goals. This type of analysis is also referred to as target audience analysis. Such as:

  • Demographic Commonalities among learners
  • Cultural/ Social characteristics relevant to the learner’s communication style.

Instructional Context Analysis 

This focuses on three cardinal points, timeliness, facilities, and transfer. Timelines refer to the amount of time needed to create the learning intervention and the amount of time needed for learners to assimilate it. Facilities are the materials needed to develop and deploy the instructions to the target audience.

Transfer considers the most effective way to deploy the learning instructions to the target audience. This analysis is not extremely common, but it enhances the learning experience because the instructional designer is able to tailor the instruction. 


During this phase, a systematic and linear approach should be taken in the identification, development, and evaluation of planned strategies that target the attainment of the project’s goals. 

The design stage takes into consideration:

  • The types of media most suitable for every task and level of learning;
  • Will learning materials be originally developed, or will the use of third party resources be employed; 
  • The teaching methodology to be employed;
  • The time frame for each activity;
  • The learning process for each activity; 
  • The knowledge and skill to be developed after each task;
  • An outline for the entire project; and 
  • The feedback mechanism to be employed. 

During this phase, the instructional designer will create a blueprint that storyboards, sketch prototypes, and the program's interface depending on the type of program.  


This is the building phase. During this stage, the instructional designer is required to draft, produce and evaluate content and materials for the learning objectives. In other words, the storyboard, prototypes, and other sketches or outlines are fleshed out and made usable.

Here graphics are added, colors are chosen, typography is decided upon and so much more. At this point, the tiniest details are put in place because they make a world of difference for the learning experience. This phase is about converting the output from the design phase into the final product. 


This refers to the actual delivery of instruction. The goal of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction.  During this phase, the instructional interventions that were designed and developed will be delivered to the target audience. 


At this stage, the goal is to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. Evaluation is divided into two, first is a formative evaluation which occurs at every stage from analysis to implementation. This type of evaluation is used to ensure that the instruction is clear.

The second type of evaluation is summative; this occurs at the end of the ADDIE cycle. It is referred to as summative evaluation, and this occurs at the end of the program. The essence of evaluation is to determine whether the goals of the program were met. Formative evaluation occurs at all stages of ADDIE.

Evaluation is used to determine the following: 

  • The effectiveness of the program;
  • How to implement data collection;
  • When to implement data collection; 
  • The most effective system for analyzing participant feedback;
  • A system for ascertaining the clarity of instructions;
  • A suitable grading system for the program; 
  • Any identifiable learning gaps in the material; 
  • Is the course information-heavy,

Advantages and Disadvantages of ADDIE training model 

Being one of the oldest instructional design methodologies, ADDIE has seen a lot of development and improvement in the guise of newer methods. This, however, has not rendered ADDIE irrelevant or useless; the truth is at the core of any new model for instructional design are the five stages of ADDIE applied differently. Here are some advantages and disadvantages of the ADDIE training model. 


The most significant benefit of the ADDIE training model is that it gives a formal framework for developing an effective learning product. It is arguably the easiest training model in existence and very good for newbie educators, instructional designers, and trainers. 

ADDIE is also necessary for ensuring that all learning activities contribute to the achievement of the learning objectives.

Because the key occupational behaviors and their required knowledge and abilities are clearly described in the framework, this model aids in measuring learning efficacy. In conclusion, ADDIE is an excellent tool for assessing learning efficiency.


A major disadvantage with the ADDIE training model is its linear nature. Instructional designers have complained that the linear nature of this model has a negative impact on creativity, which is crucial in the development of learning material. 

ADDIE is often referred to as a slow procedural approach to developing training material because until one step is completed, the next step cannot begin.

Learning Programs 

ADDIE model is best suited for situations where the issue to be resolved is caused by a knowledge gap or skill deficiency; hence the problem can be resolved by training.

A few scenarios where ADDIE is best suited include consulting interventions, workshops, and in-person training. This training model can be used in the production of products or programs such as online training, offline training, coaching session, lecture, information brochure, etc., aimed at transferring knowledge. 

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