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According to GSMA Intelligence’s CAPEX forecast, 5G will cost almost US $1 trillion to deploy over the next half decade. With 5G, it will require more network densification, which means a lot of the capex investment will go into the RAN\* (Radio Access Network.) In fact, the share of RAN in total capex will grow from 62% in 2018 to 86% in 2025. To deal with the challenge associated with upgrading and rolling out networks, several operators (AT&T, China Mobile, Deutsche Telekom, NTT DOCOMO and Orange) created the [O-RAN Alliance] in February 2018.