6 Levels of Learning in Bloom's Taxonomy from 1D to 2D Realm by@onyawoibi

6 Levels of Learning in Bloom's Taxonomy from 1D to 2D Realm

Celine Aju  HackerNoon profile picture

Celine Aju

Script Writer @ Street School Education Tutor Experience Manager @ Tuteria

Instructional design models are used in the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of instruction for learning purposes. One of the models used in the evaluation of learning outcomes is Bloom's taxonomy. Bloom's taxonomy is a model of instructional design used to assist teachers, instructors, educators, and instructional designers to measure and evaluate learning. It is referred to as the universal assessment language used by teachers.

Table of Contents:

  1. What is Bloom's Taxonomy?

  2. Six Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

    1. Knowledge
    2. Comprehension
    3. Application
    4. Analysis
    5. Synthesis
    6. Evaluation
  3. Applications of Bloom's Taxonomy

  4. Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

  5. Six Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy (Revised)

    1. Remember
    2. Comprehension
    3. Application
    4. Analysis
    5. Synthesis
    6. Evaluation

What is Bloom's Taxonomy?

Bloom's taxonomy is an instructional design model used to derive specific learning outcomes. It is a multi-layered model of classifying thinking which provides an evaluation on six (6) cognitive levels.

It also provides a common language for teachers to discuss and exchange learning and assessment methods It was developed first in 1956 when Benjamin Bloom in collaboration with Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goal “ Taxonomy of educational Objectives” also referred to as Bloom`s Taxonomy.

Six Levels of Learning

Learning is a multi-step cognitive complexity-increasing process. Bloom’s taxonomy is divided into three domains Cognitive (knowledge and understanding), Affective (feelings and attitudes), and Psychomotor (physical skills). Bloom's taxonomy systematically expresses the levels of learning beginning with learning on a cognitive level.

1. Knowledge


Source: https://giphy.com/gifs/knowledge-TI32JwHmWQEi4

This refers to the recollection process which includes remembering specifics and universals, processes and methods or patterns, structures, or settings. It is indicated by certain keywords such as list, recall, name, tell, underline, and state.

2. Comprehension

This is a type of understanding identified when the learner knows what is being communicated and is able to apply the material without necessarily using other materials. This level of learning is indicated by keywords such as compare, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, recognize and translate.

3. Application

This is the use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations. This level of learning is measured by words such as apply, complete, construct, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, interpret and sketch,

4. Analysis

This refers to the breakdown of a communication into its constituent parts, thus making the hierarchy of ideas clear and explicit. Here the teacher uses words such as analyze, appraise, categorize, compare, contrast, debate, differentiate, inspect and distinguish.

5. Synthesis

This involves putting together elements and parts so as to form a whole. At this level learners are required to arrange, assemble, collect, combine, compose, construct, create, design. Devise, formulate, plan, organize, prepare, or set up.

6. Evaluation

This is an assessment of the value of material and methods used in a specific process. At the final level the following activities occur namely: appraise, argue, assess, choose, conclude, estimate, interpret, judge, justify, rate, measure, select, score, or value.

Bloom's Taxonomy Revised

In 2001 Anderson & Krathwohl updated bloom's taxonomy, moving it from the one-dimensional realm to the two-dimensional realm. In its one-dimensional form, Bloom's taxonomy focused on the domain of knowledge while in its two-dimensional form it reorganizes and highlights the interactions between cognitive processes and knowledge content. The revised taxonomy is as follows: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate and Create. To some degree, the levels are reorganized and some are renamed.

Anderson & Krahwohl present cognitive processes as verbs and knowledge content as pronouns,  completely changing from the original which made use of only nouns. Furthermore, knowledge is redefined to include four types namely: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Metacognitive knowledge.

  • Factual knowledge refers to the foundational elements of a discipline that will enable a student to solve basic problems in the discipline. It includes basic definitions, keywords, specific details, and elements.
  • Conceptual knowledge refers to the interrelationships between factual knowledge that depicts how elements work together. It is the knowledge of classifications, categories, principles, theories, models, and structures.
  • Procedural knowledge explains how something is done. It is the knowledge about specific methods of inquiry, skills, techniques, algorithms, and methods needed to investigate or analyze information.
  • Metacognitive knowledge shows an awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition including strategies for learning, contextual and conditional knowledge about cognitive tasks, and self-knowledge.

1. Remember

This is the most basic level of learning, activities at this level typically follow this structure: memorize a rhyme, recite the colors of the rainbow. Some other keywords used in this level include copy, define, find, locate, quote, highlight, outline, match and repeat.

2. Understand

This is the use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations: arrange the animal kingdom according to a predetermined structure Show the difference between a rectangle and a square, and explain a basic story's narrative. Some other keywords used in this level include annotate, categorize, compare, contrast, group, estimate, express, and interpret.

3. Apply

In order to ensure learning outcomes are being met at this level activities are usually phrased like this:  Recreate the passage of new legislation via a particular government/system by using a formula to solve a problem, selecting a design to fulfill a goal, and using a formula to solve a problem. Some other keywords used in this level include articulate, choose, determine, execute, examine, sketch, integrate, chart and present.

4. Analyze

At this level, activities are typically described thus: identify parts of a hegemony, identify why the machine is not working. Some other keywords used in this level include calculate, deconstruct, link, deduce, illustrate, explain and distinguish.

5. Evaluate

This is the fifth level of learning defined in the new taxonomy, an example is: make an ethical decision, assess the relevance of a particular physical rule, and demonstrate the relative worth of a technical breakthrough in a certain setting—for example, a gadget that aids in data analysis. Some other keywords used in this level include validate, test, assess, criticize, measure, review, and comment.

6. Create

This is the sixth and highest level of the revised taxonomy. An example of an activity at this level is: design a novel solution to an old problem, acknowledge previous failures, write a poem on a given theme using a specific tone. Some other keywords used in this level include compose, mix, solve, negotiate, adapt and devise.

Applications of Bloom's Taxonomy

Taxonomies provide a framework for organizations within a learning structure. Educators love bloom's taxonomy because it provides them a way to think about teaching. The framework may be used to generate assessments, assess assignment difficulty, raise the rigor of a lesson, simplify an activity to better personalize learning, build a summative assessment, arrange project-based learning, frame a group discussion, and more.

A thank you note to Bloom, Anderson & Krahwohl.


Source: https://giphy.com/gifs/amine-h4In905tjBJoqxIbnq

Mr. Bloom I know you won't get a chance to read this but I really appreciate you taking the time to create this taxonomy because it opened a door to the revolution of learning. Anderson & Krahwohl thank you for taking the leap to revise the old taxonomy, your revision is proof that learning is an evolving science that must constantly change. Thank you for creating and revising a system that ensures learning occurs systematically and learning can be measured.

More in Levels of Learning

  1. https://hackernoon.com/the-addie-training-model-of-instructional-design-an-in-depth-analysis
  2. https://www.teachthought.com/learning/what-is-blooms-taxonomy/
  3. https://bloomstaxonomy.net/


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