**Secure your critical AI workloads!**

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by Johnny SimpsonOctober 2nd, 2022

Sets in python provide a method to create a unique set of unordered items with no duplicates. Their main use case is for checking if an item exists in a set of items, which can be useful in many different situations.

Creating a set is pretty easy, and is kind of similar to how we define lists in Python. The only difference, is we use `{}`

curly brackets to define a set:

```
mySet = { "some", "set", "of", "items" }
```

Sets can also be defined from lists using the `set()`

function:

```
mySet = set([ 'some', 'list', 'becoming', 'a', 'set' ])
# set is { 'some', 'list', 'becoming', 'a', 'set' }
```

You can also create sets from strings, using the same `set()`

function:

```
mySet = set('somestring')
# set is { 's', 'o', 'm', 'e', 's', 't', 'r', 'i', 'n', 'g' }
```

As with other countable types of data, we can use `len`

to get the length of a set, too:

```
let mySet = set([ 'some', 'list', 'becoming', 'a', 'set' ])
print(len(mySet)) # Returns 5
```

Finally, we can also define what is known as a `frozenset`

, which is simply an immutable, unchangeable version of a set with a fixed value, using the `frozenset()`

function:

```
let mySet = frozenset([ 'some', 'list', 'becoming', 'a', 'set' ])
```

We can combine two sets into one using the `|`

operator. If an item exists in both sets, only one copy of it will be brought over. Here's an example where we combine two sets:

```
mySet = { "set", "one" }
myNewSet = { "set", "two" }
combinedSet = mySet | myNewSet
print(combinedSet) # { "set", "one", "two" }
```

We can **intersect** sets using `&`

. That means we'll end up with a set where the items are only items that exist in both. Using the same example, we can therefore create a set only containing the item `set`

:

```
mySet = { "set", "one" }
myNewSet = { "set", "two" }
combinedSet = mySet & myNewSet
print(combinedSet) # { "set" }
```

Another way we can combine sets is by subtraction, o end up with a new set that only contains items left when removing any common items in both sets. For example, the new set below only has one item - `cool`

, since `mySet`

and `mySecondSet`

both contain "set" and "one":

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "cool" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
myNewSet = mySet - mySecondSet
print(myNewSet) # { "cool" }
```

Finally, we can do what is called **symmetric difference**, where we end up with a set that contains items found in either `mySet`

or `mySecondSet`

, but not both:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "cool", "nice" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one", "friendly" }
myNewSet = mySet ^ mySecondSet
print(myNewSet) # { "cool", "nice", "friendly" }
```

The main use case for sets is **testing membership**, to see if an item exists in a set. We can do this using the `in`

and `not in`

keywords. Let's look at an example. If we want to check `orange`

is in our `fruits`

set, we use `in`

:

```
fruits = { "orange", "apple", "peach" }
print("orange" in fruits) # True
```

Or, if we want to check if orange is not in `fruits`

, we use `not in`

:

```
fruits = { "orange", "apple", "peach" }
print("orange" not in fruits) # False
```

As with lists, we can make a copy of a set using the `copy()`

method attached to all sets. This will not change the value but will change the reference in memory for this new set. That means that if compared by value using `==`

, the sets will be the same, when compared by reference using `is`

, the sets will not be the same:

```
mySet = { "set", "one" }
mySetCopy = mySet.copy();
print(mySet == mySetCopy) # True
print(mySet is mySetCopy) # False
```

Another really useful use case for sets is the ability to check if a set is a superset or subset of another set (which is a bit of a tongue twister):

- subsets will be sets that are fully contained within another set.
- supersets will be sets that contain fully the members of another set.

Let's say we have two sets, as shown below:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "two" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
```

`mySecondSet`

, is in fact a subset of `mySet`

, since it is fully contained within `mySet`

. We can test for this using the `<=`

operator:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "two" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
print(mySecondSet <= mySet) # True
```

We can also use the `<`

operator to check for **true subsets**, meaning that `mySecondSet`

is contained within `mySet`

, but is not equal in value to `mySet`

. In the example above, this is also true:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "two" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
print(mySecondSet < mySet) # True
```

In the following example, however, `mySecondSet`

is indeed a subset of `mySet`

, but it is not a **true subset**, since both are equal in value:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
print(mySecondSet <= mySet) # True
print(mySecondSet < mySet) # False
```

Super sets work exactly the same way as subsets - the only difference is the arrow is the opposite way around. So `>`

is used to check for **true** supersets, while `>=`

is used to check for any supersets. Using our example from before, `mySet`

is a superset of `mySecondSet`

- so the following returns true:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", "two" }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
print(mySet > mySecondSet) # True
```

And similarly, while mySet is a superset of `mySeconSet`

below, it is not a true superset, so `>`

does not return true, while `>=`

does:

```
mySet = { "set", "one", }
mySecondSet = { "set", "one" }
print(mySet >= mySecondSet) # True
print(mySet > mySecondSet) # False
```

Sometimes, you'll also want to check if two sets are completely original when compared to each other. For example, `{ "one", "two" }`

, and `{ "three", "four" }`

are two sets with unique values when compared to each other. In Python, the `isdisjoint`

function allows us to accomplish that:

```
mySet = { "one", "two", }
mySecondSet = { "three", "four" }
print(mySet.isdisjoint(mySecondSet)) # True
```

While everything we've talked about so far applies both to `frozenset`

s and `set`

s, there are also a few other methods available to `set`

s, which allow us to mutate their value. These are:

`set.add('item')`

- adds an item to the set.`set.remove('item')`

- removes an item from the set.`set.update(newSet)`

- adds all items from`newSet`

to the original`set`

. This can also be written as`set |= newSet`

`set.clear()`

- removes all items from a set`set.pop(4)`

- removes the 4th item from a set, or the last item if no number is specified`set.intersection_update(newSet)`

- keeps only items found in both`set`

and`newSet`

. Can also be written as`set &= newSet`

`set.difference_update(newSet)`

- takes`set`

, and removes any items found in`newSet`

. Can also be written as`set -= newSet`

`set.symmetric_difference_update(newSet)`

- keeps only found in either`set`

and`newSet`

, but not both. Can also be written as`set ^= newSet`

While the first 5 provide easy ways to add and remove items from sets, the last 3 are the same as what we talked about before when we covered intersecting and combining sets. The difference here is we can use these functions to change the `set`

itself. While this is possible on normal sets, we cannot apply these methods to a `frozenset`

.

That should be everything you need to know about sets in Python. I hope you've enjoyed this guide. I've also written more about all of the different data structures available in Python here. If you've enjoyed this guide, you might also enjoy my other engineering content here.

Thanks for reading! You can learn more about Python data collections below:

- Python Data Collections
- Python Data Collections: Lists
- Python Data Collections: Tuples
**Python Data Collections: Sets**- Python Data Collections: Dictionaries

Also published here.

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