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This Donations Manager application can be used by charitable organizations to manage the processing of donations as well as ensure accurate data entry and seamless communications with donors. In addition, we will include a donation summary report with charts in our application.
Our Donation Manager system has four objects.
Our database is simple and straightforward. Each table is an entity that represents one of the above objects.
Programming Terminology — Object or Entity
An entity is a database term that’s typically represented by a table in a database schema. An object is an object-oriental programming term often mapped to a database table.
In our data model,
donations is used to store the information about donations; campaigns are used to compile campaign data and information about the campaign; the organization managing the campaign is stored in
donation_manager_db.sql SQL script from this tutorial’s GitHub repo, and then execute the SQL script using a MySQL tool such as MySQL Workbench or Sequel Pro. This will create a new database named
donation_manager and the tables we will need in this tutorial.
A datagrid is a spreadsheet-like data table that displays rows and columns which representing records and fields stored in the database table. These grids provide the end-user with the ability to read and write to the database tables from a web page.
The phpGrid datagrid component handles all internal database CRUD (Create, Remove, Update, and Delete) operations for us, offering faster and better results with minimal coding.
Be sure to download a free copy of phpGrid before you proceed.
To install phpGrid, follow these steps:
phpGridfolder to the phpGrid folder.
Before we begin coding, we must include the following information in
conf.php, the phpGrid configuration file.
The basic design is simple. It is composed of a single-level top menu bar and a datagrid. In the Reports section, we will add charts using the phpChart.
The Donations Manager has four menu items. Each item represents a corresponding table in the Donation Manager database.
The include file for the menu is stored in the
inc folder named
menu.php. The code for the menu is straightforward. For the sake of focus, we will not go into great detail. Feel free to look at the content stored inside the
We have also added a menu item named
Reports which we will address in Part II of this tutorial.
Our first Donation Manager page is the Donations page on which we display donation information retrieved from the
Donations table in a datagrid.
Remember that each table in the Donation Manager database has the
id as the primary key. So, we can easily create our first datagrid with the following two lines of code.
phpGrid 101 — A Basic Datagrid
1. On the first line, you create the phpGrid object to be displayed.
2. Then you call display() to render the resulting datagrid on the webpage.
You can learn more about how the basic datagrid works here.
Here’s what our
Donations datagrid looks like:
Now, we will make a few enhancements to the Donations datagrid.
First of all, we don’t need to show the
Donations primary key
id as it is only used internally and is meaningless to our users. We can hide it using set_col_hidden().
Amount column is a currency value. We can format this column to be displayed as currency using set_col_currency().
We also want our datagrid to display a human-readable Campaign description and Donor name instead of displaying meaningless integers in columns
DonorId. We can easily obtain the campaign description and donor name from
Donors table respectively using the set_col_edittype() function.
We also want to make the Donations grid editable. We can do this by adding the line:
The complete code for the Donations datagrid:
Here’s how the Donations datagrid looks after our enhancements:
Looks good, doesn’t it? Let’s move on!
The second page is the Donors page. It contains a list of donors and donation summary information.
A one-to-many relationship exists between the table
Donations because one donor can make one or more donations. The
Donations table has a foreign-key field
donorid which references the
We can join both tables,
Donations by using an INNER JOIN to populate our Donations datagrid.
SQL 101 — INNER JOIN
Use an INNER JOIN to create a one-to-many relationship between two database tables. The table on the “one” side of the “one-to-many” relationship should have a primary key column. The other table has a foreign key that points to the primary key in the first table.
Here’s our entire SQL statement.
To make our data look more interesting, we create a full name by concatenating the first name
FirstName and last name
LastName fields with CONCAT, a SQL function that concatenates two or more strings. In MySQL, it has the following syntax:
To create the donor’s full name, we also add a blank character after FirstName, which adds a space between the first and last names.
We also want to display the total amount of donated by a given donor. This is where SQL aggregation functions come in handy. In MySQL, you can use the SUM() function to return the total sum of a numeric column. We name our total
Because we want to display the summary information, we need to add a GROUP BY statement that groups identical data in the result-set. In this case, we assume that if the
Putting it all together, here’s the final SQL statement that we will use to create our datagrid.
Just in case you were wondering about what the
dn are for in the SQL statement, they are the SQL table aliases.
SQL 101 — Table Alias
SQL aliases are temporary names used for table or column. Aliases are often used to make column or table names more readable. It only exists for the duration of the query.
Our Donations datagrid looks like this:
Let’s add a few things to improve its usability.
First of all, the first column displays the table’s primary key
id. We don't need to show this to our users. Let's hide it using the set_col_hidden() function.
Each donor has an email. We can easily make this field an email hyperlink using set_col_format().
TotalDonation column is a currency field. We can change this column to currency format using set_col_currency().
And both the
TotalDonation fields should be read-only.
Finally, we make the Donors datagrid editable I(except for the fields we just made read-only) with the enable_edit() function.
The complete Donors datagrid code:
Here’s how the Donors datagrid looks like after the changes (with edit window open).
As one-to-many relationship exists between table
Donations, we can easily present this relationship using the phpGrid master detail feature.
Datagrid 101 — Master Detail
A one-to-many relationship between two data models can be presented in a master-detail format using datagrids.
The detail grid is a regular phpGrid datagrid object and can use the same methods as any other datagrid such as description title, sort, and update etc. The detail grid is dynamically rendered based on the row selected from the parent (master) grid.
We will simply reuse the code from
Donations datagrid we created earlier in this tutorial.
Note that we did NOT include the last line
Finally, we set the master-detail relationship in our code using set_masterdetails(). The second parameter is the foreign-key defined in the detail table
Donations. The third parameter is the foreign-key defined in the master table
A series of phpGrid master-detail demos and how to use them beyond the scope of this tutorial is also available.
The Campaigns page contains campaign information and donations details. Note that a given campaign can receive many donations from one or many donors. Again, we can use phpGrid’s master-detail feature as we what did on the Donors page.
Let’s start with the Campaigns.
Since the table
Donations have a one-to-many relationship, we can join the two tables by creating an INNER JOIN. Note that
dn are the SQL table aliases for the
Donations table respectively.
We also want to show the total amount that has been donated to a particular campaign. Again, we can use the SQL aggregation function SUM() to return the total of the
Amount column from the
One of the key ways to measure the success of a donation campaign, besides the its total amount of donations received, is the total number of the donations. Here, we introduce another useful SQL aggregation function called COUNT().
The COUNT() function, well, as its name suggests, counts the number of rows returned in a SELECT statement. We give it the name
Lastly, since we want to display the campaign summary information, we will add a GROUP BY statement which will group records and print their totals into summary rows for each group.
SQL 101 — GROUP BY & Aggregates
Use GROUP BY whenever you need to use the SQL aggregate functions such as COUNT, MAX, SUM, and AVG.
The complete SQL SELECT statement for our Campaigns datagrid looks like this:
Next, we are going to include a few phpGrid functions to jazz up our Campaigns datagrid.
First of all, as we did with the others, let’s hide the column
Then, let’s display our
TotalDonation field in a currency format.
Don’t forget to make the Campaigns grid editable.
Lastly, we add a global search by adding the function enable_global_search() which enables a multi-fields global search on any searchable columns. That’s all it takes.
That’s it for the Campaigns grid. Let’s take a look:
The complete code for the Campaigns grid:
Remember that we mentioned earlier that the
Donations table have a one-to-many relationship? We can present their relationship using the phpGrid master detail feature similar to the way what we did for the
We will simply reuse the same code we used for the
Donations datagrid we made earlier in the tutorial.
Note that we did NOT include the last line
Finally, we set the master-detail relationship in our code using set_masterdetails(). Campaigns is the master grid, and Donations is the detail grid.
Thus, the complete code for the Campaigns page is:
This marks the end of the code needed to create the datagrids required for this tutorial. However, we are not done yet. There is still one more page we need to create — Reports. We will cover this section in Part II.