Too Long; Didn't Read
The height and diameter of a properly designed chimney depend upon the amount of fuel to be burned, its nature, the design of the flue, with its arrangement relative to the boiler or boilers, and the altitude of the plant above sea level. There are so many factors involved that as yet there has been produced no formula which is satisfactory in taking them all into consideration, and the methods used for determining stack sizes are largely empirical. In this chapter a method sufficiently comprehensive and accurate to cover all practical cases will be developed and illustrated.
Draft is the difference in pressure available for producing a flow of the gases. If the gases within a stack be heated, each cubic foot will expand, and the weight of the expanded gas per cubic foot will be less than that of a cubic foot of the cold air outside the chimney. Therefore, the unit pressure at the stack base due to the weight of the column of heated gas will be less than that due to a column of cold air. This difference in pressure, like the difference in head of water, will cause a flow of the gases into the base of the stack. In its passage to the stack the cold air must pass through the furnace or furnaces of the boilers connected to it, and it in turn becomes heated. This newly heated gas will also rise in the stack and the action will be continuous.
The intensity of the draft, or difference in pressure, is usually measured in inches of water. Assuming an atmospheric temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit and the temperature of the gases in the chimney as 500 degrees Fahrenheit, and, neglecting for the moment the difference in density between the chimney gases and the air, the difference between the weights of the external air and the internal flue gases per cubic foot is .0347 pound, obtained as follows: