**Leviathan Level 2 → Level 3 | Learn Basic Exploitation Techniques**

In C++ programming language int data type is 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit type. In programming, an n bit integer is stored as a binary number that consists of n bits. In a signed representation, first bit represents the sign of a number (0 for positive and 1 for negative), and remaining n-1 bits contains the magnitude of the number. In an unsigned representation, the next number after the first bit is even and ifthenis odd. We can use & operator to check if a number is even or odd.

All data in computer is represented in binary i.e. in 0 or 1. Computers or machines do not understand our languages, they understand bits. Generally programmer do not care about operations at the bit level. But sometimes a programmer has to dive in a deeper level and work on bits.

In programming, an n bit integer is stored as a binary number that

consists of n bits. So a 32-bit integer consists of 32 bits and 64 bit

integer consists of 64 bits. In C++ programming language int data type

is 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit type. see here.

Here is the bit representation of 32 bit int number 10:

00000000000000000000000000001010

In C++,

`int`

is either In a signed representation, first bit represents the sign of a number (0

for positive and 1 for negative), and remaining n-1 bits contains the

magnitude of the number.

There is a connection between a signed and an unsigned representation. A signed number

`-x `

equals an unsigned number `2^n – x`

.`-x (signed) = 2^n - x (unsigned)`

```
int a = -10;
unsigned int b = a;
std::cout << a << "\n"; /* -10 */
std::cout << b << "\n"; /* 4294967286 */
```

In a signed representation, the next number after

`2^(n – 1) – 1`

is `-2^n – 1`

, and in an unsigned representation, the next number after `2^n – 1`

is `0`

.We can use & operator to check if a number is even or odd. If

`x & 1 = 0`

then `x`

is even and if `x & 1 = 1`

then `x`

is odd. We can also say that, `x`

is divisible by `2^k`

exactly when` x & (2^k – 1) = 0.`

`x<<k `

corresponds to multiplying `x`

by `2^k`

, and `x>>k`

corresponds to dividing `x`

by `2^k`

rounded down to an integer.**Binary representation of ***unsigned int***:**

```
void binary(unsigned int num)
{
for(int i = 256; i > 0; i = i/2) {
if(num & i)
std::cout << "1 ";
else
std::cout << "0 ";
}
std::cout << std::endl;
}
```

**Setting Bit at ***position***:**

```
int set_bit(int num, int position)
{
int mask = 1 << position;
return num | mask;
}
```

**Getting Bit at ***position***:**

```
bool get_bit(int num, int position)
{
bool bit = num & (1 << position);
return bit;
}
```

**Clearing Bit at ***position***:**

```
int clear_bit(int num, int position)
{
int mask = 1 << position;
return num & ~mask;
}
```

Bits representation of an integer are 0-indexed and the index starts from right side i.e. least significant bit. So we can represent every subset of the set

`{0, 1, 2, ..., n-1}`

as an For a 32-bit integer, the set is {0, 1, 2,…, 31} and the subset is {1, 3, 4, 8}. The binary representation of the set is:

00000000000000000000000100011010

and decimal representation is 2^8 + 2^4 + 2^3 + 2^1 = 282.

Code to form subset and add elements to it:

```
int add_elements_to_subset()
{
int subset = 0;
subset = subset | (1 << 1);
subset = subset | (1 << 3);
subset = subset | (1 << 4);
subset = subset | (1 << 8);
return subset;
}
```

Code to print elements of the subset:

```
void printing_subset(int subset)
{
for (int i = 0; i < 32; i++)
{
if (subset & (1 << i)) std::cout << i << " ";
}
}
```

The g++ compiler provides the following functions for counting bits:

•

`__builtin_clz(x)`

: the number of zeros at the beginning of the number•

`__builtin_ctz(x)`

: the number of zeros at the end of the number•

`__builtin_popcount(x)`

: the number of ones in the number•

`__builtin_parity(x)`

: the parity (even or odd) of the number of onesOriginally posted at ProgrammerCave

`Reference: `

`Competitive Programmer’s Handbook, by Antti Laaksonen`

L O A D I N G

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