Having worked with Kafka for more than two years now, there are two configs whose interaction I've seen be ubiquitously confused.
Those two configs are
— and how they interplay with each other.
This piece aims to be a handy reference which clears the confusion through the help of some illustrations.
To best understand these configs, it’s useful to remind ourselves of Kafka’s replication protocol.
I’m assuming you’re already familiar with Kafka — if you aren’t, feel free to check out my “Thorough Introduction to Apache Kafka” article.
For each partition, there exists one leader broker and n follower brokers.
The config which controls how many such brokers
(1 + N)
. That’s the total amount of times the data inside a single partition is replicated across the cluster.
The default and typical recommendation is three.
Producer clients only write to the leader broker — the followers asynchronously replicate the data. Now, because of the messy world of distributed systems, we need a way to tell whether these followers are managing to keep up with the leader — do they have the latest data written to the leader?
An in-sync replica (ISR) is a broker that has the latest data for a given partition.
A leader is always an in-sync replica. A follower is an in-sync replica only if it has fully caught up to the partition it’s following. In other words, it can’t be behind on the latest records for a given partition.
If a follower broker falls behind the latest data for a partition, we no longer count it as an in-sync replica.
Broker 3 is behind (out of sync)
Note that the way we determine whether a replica is in-sync or not is a bit more nuanced — it’s not as simple as “Does the broker have the latest record?” Discussing that is outside the scope of this article. For now, trust me that red brokers with snails on them are out of sync.
Thesetting is a client (producer) configuration. It denotes the number of brokers that must receive the record before we consider the write as successful.
It support three values —
With a value of
, the producer won’t even wait for a response from the broker. It immediately considers the write successful the moment the record is sent out.
The producer doesn’t even wait for a response. The message is acknowledged!
With a setting of
, the producer will consider the write successful when the leader receives the record. The leader broker will know to immediately respond the moment it receives the record and not wait any longer.
The producer waits for a response. Once it receives it, the message is acknowledged. The broker immediately responds once it receives the record. The followers asynchronously replicate the new record.
When set to
, the producer will consider the write successful when all of the in-sync replicas receive the record. This is achieved by the leader broker being smart as to when it responds to the request — it’ll send back a response once all the in-sync replicas receive the record themselves.
Not so fast! Broker 3 still hasn’t received the record.
Like I said, the leader broker knows when to respond to a producer that uses
Ah, there we go!
As you can tell, the
setting is a good way to configure your preferred trade-off between durability guarantees and performance.
If you’d like to be sure your records are nice and safe — configure your acks to
If you value latency and throughput over sleeping well at night, set a low threshold of
. You may have a greater chance of losing messages, but you inherently have better latency and throughput.
There’s one thing missing with the
configuration in isolation.
This is where
comes to shine!
is a config on the broker that denotes the minimum number of in-sync replicas required to exist for a broker to allow
That is, all requests with
won’t be processed and receive an error response if the number of in-sync replicas is below the configured minimum amount. It acts as a sort of gatekeeper to ensure scenarios like the one described above can’t happen.
Broker 3 is out of sync here.
requests to continue to work when at least x replicas of the partition are in sync. Here, we saw an example with two replicas.
But if we go below that value of in-sync replicas, the producer will start receiving exceptions.
Brokers 2 and 3 are out of sync here.
As you can see, producers with
can’t write to the partition successfully during such a situation. Note, however, that producers with
continue to work just fine.
A common misconception is that
denotes how many replicas need to receive the record in order for the leader to respond to the producer. That’s not true — the config is the minimum number of in-sync replicas required to exist in order for the request to be processed.
That is, if there are three in-sync replicas and
, the leader will respond only when all three replicas have the record.
Here broker 3 is an in-sync replica. The leader can’t respond yet because broker 3 hasn’t received the write.
And that’s all there is to it! Simple once visualized — isn’t it?
To recap, the
settings are what let you configure the preferred durability requirements for writes in your Kafka cluster.
—the write is considered successful the moment the request is sent out. No need to wait for a response.
— the leader must receive the record and respond before the write is considered successful.
— all online in sync replicas must receive the write. If there are less than min.insync.replicas online, then the write won’t be processed.
Kafka is a complex distributed system, so there’s a lot more to learn about!
Here are some resources I can recommend as a follow-up:
Kafka is actively developed — it’s only growing in features and reliability due to its healthy community. To best follow its development, I’d recommend joining the mailing lists.
Create your free account to unlock your custom reading experience.