**Aspects of Thermal QCD Phenomenology at Intermediate Gauge/'t Hooft Coupling: Acknowledgment**

by Multiverse Theory: as real as the movies make it out to beFebruary 22nd, 2024

**Authors:**

(1) Gopal Yadav, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology & Chennai Mathematical Institute.

**PART I**

Chapter 2: SU(3) LECs from Type IIA String Theory

Chapter 4: Conclusion and Future Outlook

**PART II**

Chapter 6: Page Curves of Reissner-Nordström Black Hole in HD Gravity

Chapter 8: Black Hole Islands in Multi-Event Horizon Space-Times

Chapter 9: Multiverse in Karch-Randall Braneworld

Chapter 10: Conclusion and Future outlook

The holographic dual of thermal QCD-like theories at intermediate coupling was constructed in [1] by including the O(R4 ) terms in the eleven-dimensional supergravity action. First part of the thesis explored the application of [1] and the following issues have been addressed in the first part of this thesis.

In [2], we have computed the low energy coupling constants (LECs) of SU(3) chiral perturbation theory in the chiral limit from the type IIA string dual inclusive of O(R4 ) corrections. We matched our results with the phenomenological data and found the connection between higher derivative terms and large-N expansion.

In [3], we computed the deconfinement temperature of thermal QCD-like theories at intermediate coupling from M theory dual inclusive of O(R4 ) corrections using Witten’s prescription [4] in the absence of rotation. In this process, we observed a novel “UV-IR” mixing, “Flavor Memory” effect (memory of flavor D7 branes considered in parent type IIB string dual was contained in the aforementioned no-braner M-theory uplift of large-N thermal QCD) and non-renormalization of deconfinement temperature (Tc) beyond one loop in the zero instanton sector from semiclassical computation and entanglement entropy points of view. We also discussed confinement-deconfinement phase transition in thermal QCDlike theories from the entanglement entropy point of view too, where the aforementioned sectors correspond to entanglement entropies of connected and disconnected RT surfaces in gravity dual. Further, we showed compatibility of the results obtained with MχPT as obtained in [2]. Then in [5], we constructed holographic dual of rotating quark-gluon plasma (QGP) by performing Lorentz transformations in the subspace of eleven-dimensional M theory metric on the gravity dual side. We computed the deconfinement temperature (Tc) of rotating QGP using semiclassical method [4] and found that the deconfinement temperature of rotating QGP is inversely proportional to Lorentz factor, which implies that it decreases when Tc increases and vice-versa. Further, “UV-IR” mixing, “nonrenormanization of Tc” and “Flavor Memory” effect were again observed in the holographic study of rotating QGP.

From the applications of the island proposal [6], doubly holographic setup [7], and wedge holography [8, 9], we explored the following issues.

In [10], we obtained the Page curves of Reissner-Nordström black hole in the presence of higher derivative terms (O(R2 )) in the gravitational action. We used the Island proposal [6] to do the same and found that Page curves are shifted towards later times or earlier times when Gauss-Bonnet coupling increases or decreases. Scrambling time is affected when we considered general O(R2 ) terms, whereas it was unaffected in Einstein-Maxwell-GaussBonnet gravity. Based on these results, one can say that the “dominance of the island” is affected by the presence of higher derivative terms.

We obtained the Page curve of the Schwarzschild de-Sitter (SdS) black hole using the island proposal from a non-holographic approach in [12] for the black hole and de-Sitter patches separately. This was possible because of the insertion of thermal opaque membranes on both sides of the black hole and de-Sitter patches. We obtained the Page curve of the black hole patch by plotting the entanglement entropy of Hawking radiation in the absence and presence of the island surface. In the case of the SdS black hole, we found that island is located inside the black hole in contrast to the universal result that island is located outside the black hole. We also discussed that “dominance of islands” and “information recovery” takes more time for the low-temperature black hole patch compared to the high-temperature black hole patch.

We described the Multiverse in [13] from the application of wedge holography. Multiverse is described as the setup of 2n anti de-Sitter (AdS) or de-Sitter branes embedded in the corresponding bulk. Due to different bulks for the AdS and de-Sitter branes, we can’t have the Multiverse made up of AdS and de-Sitter branes both. Since all the universes can communicate with each other due to transparent boundary conditions at the defect, one could resolve the “grandfather paradox” in this setup. This setup is also used to obtain the Page curve of the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole, which has two horizons.

This paper is available on arxiv under CC 4.0 license.

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