Annotated and Lightweight Git Tags
Tags are a simple aspect of Git, they allow you to identify specific release versions of your code. You can think of a tag as a branch that doesn't change. Once it is created, it loses the ability to change the history of commits.
Two Types of Git Tags
There are two types of tags in Git
. Both of them will allow you to refer to a specific commit in a repository, but they differ in the amount of metadata they can store.
Annotated tags store extra metadata such as author name, release notes, tag-message, and date as full objects in the Git database. All this data is important for a public release of your project.
$ git tag -a v1.0.0
Executing this command you will create a new annotated tag identified with version v1.0.0. The command will then open up your commit editor so that you can fill up the metadata.
In case you wanted to add a tag-message
you can pass the
option, this is a method similar to
`git commit -m`
$ git tag -a v1.0.0 -m "Releasing version v1.0.0"
Lightweight tags are the simplest way to add a tag to your git repository because they store only the hash of the commit they refer to. They are created with the absence of the -a, -s, or -m options and *do not* contain any extra information.
Lightweight tags are essentially "bookmarks" to a commit, they are just a name and a pointer to a commit, useful for creating quick links to relevant commits. By Bitbucket tutorials
To create a new lightweight tag execute the following command:
$ git tag v1.0.0
Use the command whenever you want to list all the existing tags, or you could filter the list with
`git tag -l 'v1.1.*'`
acts as a wildcard
. It will return a list of tags marked with
You will notice that when you call
you do not get to see the contents of your annotations. To preview them you must add
to your command:
`git tag -n3`
$ git tag -l -n3
v1.0 Release version 1.0
v1.1 Release version 1.1
v1.2 Release version 1.2
The command lists all existing tags with maximum 3 lines of their tag message. By default
only shows the first line.
`git show <tag_identifier>`
This command presents you with tag details and information from the commit that was tagged.
$ git show v1.0
Date: Fri May 11 10:45:33 2018 +0100
Release version 1.0
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: GnuPG v1
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
Date: Fri May 11 9:50:13 2018 +0100
Edited the Login form
It prints the author's name, creation date, message, GnuPG signature if present and the information about the referenced commit. If the tag is lightweight, the output will be limited to the information about the referenced commit.
`git tag -a -f <tag_identifier> <commit_id>`
If you try to create a tag with the same identifier as an existing tag, Git will throw an error:
`fatal: tag 'v1.0' already exists`
Instead of having to delete it and re-add the tag you can simply replace it while keeping the existing description. Choose the place in your commit history with
where you want the tag moved to and add
to your command.
Remember to alert your team members when you "force" a change like this. If they still have an "old" version of the tag, it may cause conflicts when they try to push to the server!
If you have already pushed the tag
to the server and want to fix that, first make sure your local version of the tag is correct before you run the following command
`git push origin -f --tags`
`git tag -d <tag_identifier>`
Generally, there is no reason to delete the tags because they are inexpensive and don't use any resources unless you have mistakenly created a tag pointing to the wrong commit.
In case the tag has been already pushed
and you need to remove it from remote repository run:
`$ git push origin :v1.0`
`git push <location> <tag_identifier>`
A tag is just a reference to your local repository and it is not
automatically pushed to the remote repository
with the rest of the code. Instead, you can
the tag individually, or you can run
`git push --tags`
which will push all tags at once. It can be done similarly to pushing the branches:
$ git push origin v1.0
`git tag --sort=<type>`
When looking at a project with lots of tags, using the sort option
can come in handy. Supported types are:
(sorts in a lexicographic order),
(here tag names are treated as versions).
git tag -l --sort=-version:refname "v*"
Here we are listing all tags which name starts with "v" by their versions.
Isn't git tag the same as #tag in social media, but in its own way? It helps us return and list all our previous release!
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