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by Phenomenology TechnologyJuly 31st, 2024

**Author:**

(1) Ahmed Farag Ali, Essex County College and Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University.

Space-time quanta and Becken Universal bound

Space-time quanta and Spectral mass gap

Conclusion, Acknowledgments, and References

We found that the GUP implied by Snyder's algebra vanishes at a specific energy scale. We define this energy scale as the scale of space-time quanta at which wavefunction collapses to form a mass. The mass of space-time quanta forms a mass gap of space-time. The covariance principle requires the space-time quanta to be a 4-dimensional object and to represent the elementary particles. Based on the geometric and symmetric analysis, we propose that the space-time quanta be represented by the 24-cell. First, it is highly-symmetric convex regular 4-polytope and self-dual. Second, The symmetry group of 24-cell is the Weyl/Coxeter group of Fs group that generates the gauge group of the standard model by the intersection of its two stabilizer groups. In addition, the 24-cell has a beautiful geometric property in which its vertices can be grouped into 3 different sets of eight vertices, each defining 16-cell with the rest defining the dual tesseract with 16 vertices. Therefore, we represent 8 vertices of 16-cell with the 8 gluons that may give a geometric interpretation of the color confinement. We represent 16 vertices of tesseract with the 12 fermions and 4 gauge bosons which may explain the flatness of the observable universe. The Higgs particle is represented as the tesseract which explains why Higgs only couple with 12 fermions and 4 gauge bosons and does not couple with 8 gluons. Vanishing uncertainty implies the creation of a mass of space-time quanta, so the length of 24-cell is identified by the electroweak length scale 10-18 m of mass creation and which is consistent with experimental measurements of the smallest measured value of charge radius of scattering for neutrinos, Higgs, Z-boson, and W boson. We think that a 24-cell symmetry group which is a solvable group of order "1152" could be useful in quantum computing. We hope to report on this application in the future.

I thank the Editor and referee for their meticulous review of this manuscript and express gratitude towards Klee Irwin, Raymond Aschheim, Fang Fang, Richard Clawson, and Dugan Hammock for their enlightening discussions on Polytopes and Quasicrystals. Special thanks to Ahmed Almheiri for his engaging lecture on the Path integral for chords.

This manuscript is a tribute to my father, Farag Mohamed Ali, whose legacy illuminates my journey, and in memory of Mustafa Shalaby, whose teachings have profoundly inspired my exploration of physics’ core principles.

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