Instructional Design Models Explained (Part 2) by@onyawoibi

Instructional Design Models Explained (Part 2)

Top 7 New Models of Instructional Design: 1. Sams Model 2. Kemps Model 3. Understanding By Design Model 4. Gerlach & Ely Model 5. Fink`s Model 6. PETER HASSLE model 7. ASSURE model
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Celine Aju

Script Writer @ Street School Education Tutor Experience Manager @ Tuteria


The emergence of Instructional design can be traced back to the world wars, when ADDIE model, Gagne`s 9 Principles, Mayer's Multimedia Principles, Kirkpatrick's Model were developed. As time has passed, the world has seen the development and emergence of more models such as KEMP`s Model, GNOME Model PETER HASSLE, and so many more. This article highlights the top 7 new instructional design models.

Table of Contents:


  1. Top 7 New Models of Instructional Design

    1. Sams Model
    2. Kemps Model
    3. Backward Design model
    4. Gerlach & Ely Model
    5. Fink`s Model
    6. PETER HASSLE model
    7. ASSURE model

Top 7 New Models of Instructional Design

Sams Model

The Successive Approximation Model (SAM) is an agile development model, commonly referred to as a simplified version of the ADDIE Model. SAMs model was created to elicit input and develop functioning models earlier in the process. Preparation, Iterative Design, and Iterative Development are the three parts of the most basic SAM paradigm. The crucial word here is iterative, which serves as the model's foundation and indicates that each stage should be repeated and revisited.


The preparation phase involves the gathering of the necessary information and background for the project; the content and scope of this phase will vary widely depending on the project or course. The "Savvy Start," which encourages brainstorming, sketching, and prototyping while developing the material and involves as many interested parties as possible: colleagues, advisors, and, if you're lucky enough to have them as a resource, students, is the hallmark of the end of the first phase of this model.


The purpose of the second step, Iterative Design, is to design and prototype the material so that interested parties can assess it. The rationale here is that it is easier to provide input and evaluate an existing product than it is to provide feedback and analyze a new product.

The argument here is that it is easier to provide feedback and analyze an existing product than one that is simply a concept, allowing for more thorough examination and testing.


The finished prototype is fully developed and implemented in the final Iterative Development phase. It can be assessed and re-run through the development and implementation phases if necessary after it has been used.


Kemps Model

A circular model of instructional design with nine interrelated rather than distinct and independent core aspects of the paradigm. This gives instructional designers a lot of flexibility because they can start the design process with any of the nine components or stages instead of being forced to work in a straight line. To put it another way, designers are not obligated to evaluate the components in any predetermined "orderly manner" while creating instructional learning systems.


A number of steps can be addressed simultaneously depending on the method, and certain design stages may not even be required. Because of the interdependence of components, the design process becomes cyclical, requiring constant changes and adjustments among the pieces to reach the desired result.


In general, an instructional designer must consider not only the learning objectives but also a number of other factors, such as the learner's needs and characteristics, instructional content and activities (including tasks and procedures), instructional resources and support services, and learner assessment and evaluation tools and methods in order to achieve these results.


These responsibilities correspond to the four important parts that make up the basic framework for instructional planning (learner, objectives, techniques, and evaluation), as outlined by

This learner-centered approach encourages designers to think from the perspective of the learner, taking into consideration the learner’s overall goals, needs, priorities, and restrictions while developing instructional solutions.

Nine Core Elements of the Kemp Instructional Design Model:


  1. Determine the exact objectives, as well as any potential instructional challenges;
  2. Identify learner characteristics that should be considered during the planning phase;
  3. Clarify course material and examine potential task components in connection to the course's stated aims and objectives;
  4. Define the teaching goals and outcomes you want students to achieve;
  5. Ensure that the content for each instructional unit is organized in a logical and linear manner to aid learning;
  6. Create teaching strategies to help individual students master the material and achieve their goals;
  7. Plan the instructional message and the best delivery method;
  8. Develop evaluation instruments that can be used to track and evaluate students' progress toward meeting course objectives; and
  9. Select the resources that will best help both teaching and learning.

Backward Design model

It was developed by Wiggins and McTighe in their book “Understanding by design”. As the name implies, it is a backward framework in that it reverses the typical approach. In this approach, the primary focus is the desired learning outcomes. Only when one knows exactly what one wants students to learn should the focus turn toward consideration of the best methods for teaching the content and meeting those learning goals.


The three parts of the Backward Design technique are to establish desired outcomes, determine acceptable criteria for measuring students' progress, and create instructional methodologies. There are a variety of criteria for each of these phases to help guide the course design process.

Fink`s Model

L. Dee Fink's created a model of instructional design called “ Integrated Course Design” aka Fink`s Taxonomy. This model allows teachers to include students' situational elements into the course's learning goals, activities, and assessments. This model is divided into three phases, namely;  Initial Design, Immediate Design, and Final Design Phase.


During the initial design phase, the instructional designer identifies Situational factors, learning goals, feedback and assessment procedures, teaching and learning activities, and integration.

In the Immediate design phase, the focus is on course structure, instructional strategy, and creating an overall scheme of learning activities.


The final design phase is completed by answering questions:


  • How are you going to grade?

  • What can go wrong?

  • How will you know how the course is going and How it went?


It also requires the trainer to let the students know what is being planned.

Gerlach & Ely Model

Designed b Vernon S. Gerlach & Donald P. Ely, this model continues to serve “classroom teachers well” as it incorporates the foundational principles of teaching and learning. The Gerlach & Ely model places a strong emphasis on methodical planning, as well as two other critical aspects of effective teaching: explicitly stating teaching goals and techniques for achieving each of the intended learning outcomes.


The ten elements of the Gerlach& Ely model:


  • Content Specification
  • Objectives must be defined.
  • Examining Entering Behaviors
  • Establishing a Strategy
  • Groups' Organization
  • Time allocation and space allocation
  • Resources to be used
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Feedback Evaluation

PETER HASSLE Model

This is  a hybrid ID model - based on the work of Gagne and Malcolm Knowles; it is identified by a Mnemonic PETER HASSLE, which stands for:


  • Prepare - remembering that getting people prepared and motivated to learn can happen outside of a formal learning program.
  • Engage - remembering that the one thing that bores learners is learning content that's too "low level."
  • Tutor
  • Explore - remembering that learners need to try out things for themselves.
  • Review

and, for HASSLE:

  • Help
  • Assess
  • Study
  • Share
  • Learn
  • Enter

ASSURE Model

It can be described as the ultimate Instructional design/ teacher checklist. ASSURE is an acronym that stands for:


A- Analyze Learners
S- State Standards and Objectives
S- Select Strategies, Technology, Media and Materials
U- Utilize technology, Media and Materials
R- Require Learner Participation

E- Evaluate & Revise


Any good teacher/ instructional designer understands that perfecting their method takes time and that there is always space for growth. You will be sure to improve your teaching for many years if you follow the ASSURE procedure.


More in Instructional Design

  1. 13 Instructional Design Models Explained
  2. Instructional Design Models & Theories


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