Implementing CI/CD with GitHub Actions: Building and Deploying Docker Images from a Python Projectby@ziborev
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Implementing CI/CD with GitHub Actions: Building and Deploying Docker Images from a Python Project

by Artem ZiborevOctober 13th, 2023
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While the CI/CD ecosystem is expansive and multifaceted, GitHub Actions stands out for its adaptability.
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In contemporary software engineering practices, the paramount significance lies in Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Delivery/Deployment (CD). CI/CD pipelines are engineered with the primary goal of enabling developers to integrate recent software modifications into a production environment both expediently and securely. This, in turn, fosters business value. It is pivotal not only for engineers but also for business strategists to discern the nuances between continuous integration, delivery, and deployment.

Often, it is observed that teams efficiently navigate continuous integration but inadvertently overlook the facets of delivery or deployment, potentially hindering the full realization of CI/CD benefits.

The prominence of CI/CD received a significant boost in 2021 with the emergence of novel paradigms like GitOps and MLOps. These advancements elevated CI/CD to a preeminent position, championing interdisciplinary alignment and innovative operational methodologies. Such progressions underscore the imperative nature of a holistic comprehension of CI/CD. With the increasing adoption of Agile methodologies in the realm of software development, CI/CD has become indispensable. Agile tenets advocate for automated testing as a conduit for rapid software iteration. This enables stakeholders to readily access novel functionalities and ensures swift feedback loops. Automated testing not only upholds software quality but also provides immediate insights into potential inefficiencies or issues, facilitating prompt rectifications.

In this evolving landscape, it becomes imperative to foster a comprehensive understanding of the entire spectrum of CI/CD, while concurrently assimilating the emerging methodologies, in order to maintain competitiveness and drive innovation.

Within the current software development milieu, the efficacy of a CI/CD pipeline transcends the conventional boundaries of continuous integration and delivery; it embodies the essence of agility. The establishment of a CI/CD workflow designed to facilitate swift provisioning of environments, showcase Minimum Viable Product (MVP) demonstrations, or cater to staging environments assumes paramount significance. In this context, we shall embark on a comprehensive exploration of the intricate process involved in establishing a robust CI/CD workflow leveraging the capabilities of GitHub Actions. This pipeline seamlessly executes the transformation of a Python application into a Docker container, followed by its deployment onto a development server via Docker Compose. This orchestration encompasses all essential components, including databases and message queues, as well as other indispensable infrastructure elements.

Overview of CI/CD tools, in particular GitHub Actions

The domain of Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery/Deployment (CI/CD) boasts a variety of tools, each crafted to simplify and streamline the software development lifecycle. These tools cater to different stages and aspects, from code integration to automated testing, and from release management to deployment (table 1). Among these myriad tools, GitHub Actions emerges as a particularly notable solution.

Table 1. CI/CD Tool

CI/CD Tool

Primary Purpose


An open-source automation tool for continuous integration and delivery with a wide range of plugins and integrations.

Travis CI

A cloud-based continuous integration service tightly integrated with GitHub repositories.


Offers cloud-based CI/CD pipelines with Docker support and efficient caching strategies.

GitLab CI/CD

Provides an integrated CI/CD solution within the GitLab platform, covering the entire software development lifecycle.


Atlassian's CI/CD server solution, integrating closely with tools like Jira and Bitbucket.


A server-based CI/CD tool offering extensive build and deployment configurations.

GitHub Actions

Integrated within GitHub, it automates software workflows in the repository environment. Supports triggers like pull requests, code merges, and offers actions in modular blocks.

Azure Pipelines

Microsoft Azure's CI/CD solution that supports any platform and cloud, integrating seamlessly with GitHub.

AWS CodePipeline

Amazon Web Services' continuous integration and continuous deployment service.


An open-source, multi-cloud continuous delivery platform that integrates with CI tools and supports complex deployment strategies.

GitHub Actions is a CI/CD tool seamlessly integrated into the GitHub platform.

Its design aims to automate software workflows directly within the repository environment. Unlike some other CI/CD solutions that necessitate external integrations or complex configurations, GitHub Actions offers a more intuitive and repository-centric approach. It facilitates automatic execution of software pipelines upon a multitude of triggers, ranging from pull requests to issue creations and code merges.

Underpinning GitHub Actions is a series of predefined 'actions'—modular and reusable blocks of code. These actions can be orchestrated in workflows to define an end-to-end automation process. The system's architecture is built on flexibility: developers can utilize predefined actions from the GitHub marketplace or create bespoke ones tailored to specific project needs. This granular control, combined with GitHub's native environment, makes GitHub Actions a favored choice for many software engineers, both novices and veterans.

Furthermore, with the evolving landscape of software development that now includes Docker containerization and deployment orchestration, GitHub Actions has kept pace. It supports building, testing, and deploying Docker containers, enabling modern microservice-based applications to be efficiently developed, tested, and deployed.

In summary, while the CI/CD ecosystem is expansive and multifaceted, GitHub Actions stands out for its adaptability, integration within a popular version control platform, and comprehensive approach to modern software delivery challenges.

Purpose and objectives of the work

The overarching objective of this research paper is to elucidate the process of implementing a CI/CD pipeline using GitHub Actions, with a specific focus on building and deploying Docker images from a Python-based project. This study aims to demonstrate how contemporary CI/CD practices, when married with powerful tools like GitHub Actions, can significantly enhance the software development and deployment lifecycle, especially in the context of Python applications containerized via Docker.

The tasks integral to achieving this objective are manifold:

  1. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the prerequisites necessary for the CI/CD implementation, including the acquisition of a GitHub repository, ensuring SSH server access, and establishing an account on Docker Hub or an alternative container registry.
  2. To meticulously detail the process of setting up GitHub Secrets— a foundational step ensuring the secure storage and utilization of sensitive data such as SSH keys and authentication tokens.
  3. To describe the formulation and implementation of a GitHub Actions workflow that spans from code checkout to deployment on a development server.
  4. To provide insights into the intricacies of each workflow step, highlighting their significance and offering guidance on their optimal configuration and execution.

Through the fulfillment of these tasks, this study endeavors to present readers with a cohesive, actionable blueprint for leveraging GitHub Actions in the realm of Python software development and Docker container deployment.

Prerequisites and requirements

To effectively implement the described CI/CD pipeline using GitHub Actions, several prerequisites and requirements must be met (Fig. 1). These are instrumental in ensuring seamless integration, containerization, and deployment processes.

Figure 1 - Prerequisites and requirements

  1. GitHub Repository: At the core of the process lies the need for a GitHub repository. This repository will house the Python application codebase and facilitate the integration with GitHub Actions. Additionally, it serves as the central hub for version control, ensuring traceability and collaboration.
  2. SSH Server Access: To facilitate the deployment phase, one must possess SSH access to the target server. This secure protocol ensures that the process of code transfer and execution on the server remains both reliable and safeguarded against potential security vulnerabilities.
  3. Container Registry Account: Given the emphasis on Docker for containerization, an account on Docker Hub or a comparable container registry becomes imperative. This registry will store the Docker images built during the CI process, making them available for subsequent deployment. Furthermore, it acts as a centralized repository, ensuring versioning, and easy rollback of containerized applications.

Understanding and fulfilling these prerequisites is pivotal to guarantee a successful and efficient CI/CD implementation. By ensuring these foundational elements are in place, one sets the stage for a streamlined and effective integration and deployment process facilitated by GitHub Actions.

CI/CD Pipeline implementation

Step 1: Setting up the GitHub Secrets

In the preliminary phase of establishing an efficient CI/CD pipeline using GitHub Actions, the paramount step pertains to the configuration of GitHub Secrets. These secrets function as encrypted environmental variables, shielding sensitive data from unintended exposure while still making it accessible for the required automation tasks.

To set up these pivotal secrets, one should first access their respective GitHub repository. Within the repository's interface, navigating to the "Settings" tab reveals the "Secrets" option. Utilizing this facility allows the user to input specific key-value pairs that the GitHub Actions workflow will later rely upon.

Key secrets to be configured include:

  • DOCKERHUB_USERNAME: Docker Hub username.
  • DOCKERHUB_TOKEN: Docker Hub token.
  • SSH_PRIVATE_KEY: Server's private SSH key.
  • HOST: Server IP or domain name.
  • SSH_USERNAME: SSH username for the server.

Upon the successful configuration of these secrets, the foundation is laid for the forthcoming GitHub Actions workflow. This workflow, defined within the .github/workflows/deployment.yml file, will leverage these secrets to ensure seamless and secure execution of the CI/CD tasks.

Following the initial configuration of GitHub Secrets, a deeper examination of each successive stage in the CI/CD pipeline using GitHub Actions is imperative to ensure an effective, secure, and efficient software delivery process.

Step 2: Repository Checkout

This stage is characterized by retrieving the GitHub repository's content. By doing so, the necessary codebase becomes accessible to the GitHub Actions runner for all subsequent stages. This retrieval operation is facilitated through the actions/checkout@v2 action.

Step 3: QEMU Configuration

This phase focuses on empowering the pipeline with the capability of creating multi-architecture Docker images. By leveraging QEMU, it allows Docker images to be compatible across diverse hardware architectures, enhancing the universality of deployments. The utilized action for this is docker/setup-qemu-action@v2.

Step 4: Docker Buildx Initialization

The objective here is to harness Buildx, a CLI plugin for Docker, ensuring that multi-architecture Docker images can be crafted with ease. This is realized using the docker/setup-buildx-action@v2 action.

Step 5: Docker Hub Authentication

A crucial step that authenticates the GitHub Actions runner with Docker Hub. This connection, established through docker/login-action@v2, paves the way for Docker image pushes, with authentication credentials specified via the inputs: the Docker Hub username and the corresponding token.

Step 6: Docker Image Construction & Deployment

This phase pivots around the creation of a Docker image from the repository's Dockerfile. Once crafted, this image is then dispatched to Docker Hub. Achieved using docker/build-push-action@v2, it specifies the image's context, ensures it's pushed to Docker Hub, and provides it with a definitive tag.

Step 7: SSH Key Configuration

By leveraging shimataro/ssh-key-action@v2, this step outfits the runner with the means to securely establish SSH communications with the development server. It uses the server's private SSH key and disregards host verification for simplicity in this configuration.

Step 8: Known Hosts Addition

This is a supplementary security step ensuring that SSH connections are perceived as legitimate. By running the ssh-keyscan command, it acquires and appends the server's public SSH key to the known hosts file, strengthening the security posture.

Step 9: Deployment on Development Server

Concluding the pipeline, the docker-compose.yml file is securely transported to the development server using the rsync utility. Once transferred, an SSH session is established, directing the server to initiate the services detailed in the docker-compose.yml through the Docker Compose command. Services are initiated in a detached mode, ensuring their persistence post-execution.

Step 10: Directory Navigation and Deployment

Upon successfully transferring the necessary files to the development server, the next logical phase is to initiate the Dockerized services. This step involves an SSH session into the development server. Once accessed, the system navigates to the specified project directory. Within this directory, the Docker Compose command is executed, orchestrating the launch of the defined services in the docker-compose.yml file. The use of the -d flag in the docker-compose up command ensures that the services are run in a detached mode. Consequently, they continue their operation independently of the session, ensuring persistent and uninterrupted service even post command completion. This maneuver, streamlined through the combination of ssh, cd, and docker-compose up -d, culminates the CI/CD pipeline by effectively transitioning from code changes to an active, deployed service.

In essence, these stages, when executed cohesively, ensure a fluid and secure transition from code modification to deployment, emphasizing the transformative potential of GitHub Actions in the CI/CD framework.

Tips and tricks

While the adoption and implementation of a CI/CD pipeline, especially one anchored on GitHub Actions, offer numerous advantages, it's essential to remain apprised of certain best practices to extract maximum efficiency and security.

Multi-Architecture Awareness: While QEMU and Buildx are integrated into the presented workflow to ensure multi-architecture compatibility for Docker builds, their utilization may not be universally pertinent. Teams not seeking to deploy across varied hardware architectures might find it advantageous to omit these steps, leading to a more concise pipeline.

SSH Key Management: The safety and security of SSH keys are paramount. Directly embedding or inadvertently logging these keys can lead to security breaches. The presented approach uses GitHub Secrets, which encrypts these sensitive credentials, ensuring they remain concealed. Adhering strictly to such practices mitigates risks associated with unauthorized access.

Optimizing Build Times: The efficiency of the CI/CD process is often tethered to the speed of its builds. Given the potential size and complexity of applications, leveraging caching mechanisms, especially during Docker builds, can significantly expedite the process. By caching unchanged layers, rebuild times can be reduced, leading to faster feedback and deployment cycles.

Testing in Production Environments: As the workflow delineated focuses on deployment to a development server, it's worth noting that additional considerations are required for production settings. Employing more advanced orchestration tools, such as Kubernetes, can ensure that applications scale and perform optimally when subjected to real-world traffic and demands.

Continuous Feedback Loop: Integral to the spirit of CI/CD is the cultivation of a continuous feedback loop. This ensures not only that software functions as intended but also fosters an environment of constant iteration and improvement. Automated testing provides immediate feedback to developers, but it's equally pivotal to have mechanisms that capture and relay user feedback post-deployment.

In essence, while the tools and methodologies provided create a robust CI/CD foundation, it's the judicious adherence to best practices and a commitment to continuous improvement that ensures enduring success in software delivery endeavors.


In the ever-evolving landscape of software development, the integration of CI/CD pipelines stands as a testament to the industry's dedication to efficiency, consistency, and quality. This research has endeavored to illuminate the intricacies of harnessing GitHub Actions to facilitate a seamless transition from codebase modifications to Docker container deployments, specifically for Python applications.

The significance of a well-structured CI/CD pipeline is evident. It not only streamlines the software delivery process but also ensures that applications remain robust, scalable, and aligned with stakeholder expectations. The meticulous delineation of the process, from setting pre-requisites to understanding each nuance of the pipeline stages, underscores the multifaceted nature of modern software deployment. GitHub Actions, with its intrinsic integration capabilities and flexibility, emerges as a pivotal tool in this realm.

While the technical steps and mechanisms have been elucidated, it is imperative to note that the true strength of any CI/CD pipeline lies in its adaptability. The software industry is characterized by its rapid advancements, and a rigid pipeline will soon find itself obsolete. Therefore, continuous evaluation, iteration, and incorporation of best practices are non-negotiable for teams aspiring for excellence.

In summation, the journey from code to deployment, when navigated with precision, foresight, and an understanding of tools like GitHub Actions, can transform software delivery from a cumbersome task into a streamlined, efficient, and rewarding process. As the industry continues to advance, such methodologies will undoubtedly play a central role, guiding teams to deliver software that resonates with quality and innovation.