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Middleware is a design pattern to add cross-cutting concerns like logging, handling authentication, or gzip compression without having many code contact points. Some middleware is passive, such as logging middleware, can perform transforms on the request or response body. Latency and bandwidth are two orthogonal, yet related metrics. For example, an increase in latency can also reduce the bandwidth of a system, or the average time needed to perform a particular query. Latency may also increase the resident time of queues.