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P. C. Mahalanobis was a physics professor in Calcutta, India. He founded the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in 1931 and founded Sankhyā, a statistics journal. The institute became India’s top institute for statistical research in the 1930s and 40s. He introduced core statistical concepts still in use today—including randomization, multivariate analysis and fractile graphical analysis. After independence in 1947, the Indian economy was a shaky start after two hundred years of colonial rule.