**Welcome to Miro - The Innovation Workspace!**

646 reads

by Damian AbramovSeptember 26th, 2023

My research journey into ML in Elixir has been marked by the discovery of Elixir's unique strengths and its potential to revolutionize how ML workflows are designed and executed. The fusion of Elixir's concurrency, fault tolerance, and scalability with the power of ML opens up exciting possibilities for building robust and efficient ML systems.

As I continue to explore this fusion, I am eager to witness how Elixir's functional elegance can shape the future of machine learning. In this article, we look at a few examples of using the Elixir language in the context of machine learning.

In this example, we'll create a simple Elixir application to perform linear regression using the Nx library for numerical operations and Axon for machine learning.

First, ensure you have the necessary dependencies in your `mix.exs`

file:

```
defp deps do
[
{:axon, "~> 0.8"},
{:nx, "~> 2.0"}
]
end
```

Now, let's create a module for linear regression:

```
defmodule LinearRegression do
use Axon.Model
defstruct [:slope, :intercept]
def init(_opts) do
%{slope: 0.0, intercept: 0.0}
end
def fit(data) do
x_values = Nx.get_column(data, 0)
y_values = Nx.get_column(data, 1)
x_mean = Nx.mean(x_values)
y_mean = Nx.mean(y_values)
numerator = Nx.dot(x_values - x_mean, y_values - y_mean)
denominator = Nx.dot(x_values - x_mean, x_values - x_mean)
slope = numerator / denominator
intercept = y_mean - slope * x_mean
%{slope: slope, intercept: intercept}
end
def predict(model, x) do
model.slope * x + model.intercept
end
end
```

Let's use this module to perform linear regression:

```
data = Nx.Matrix.new([[1.0, 2.0], [2.0, 3.0], [3.0, 4.0]])
model = LinearRegression.fit(data)
prediction = LinearRegression.predict(model, 4.0)
IO.puts("Predicted value for x = 4.0: #{prediction}")
```

In this example, we created a simple Elixir application to perform linear regression using the Nx for numerical operations and Axon for machine learning.

Let's add complexity and create a small example of machine learning.

Elixir is known for its ability to create highly concurrent and distributed systems. We can use these features to create machine learning and ETL processes.

For this example, let's assume we have a large dataset that we want to process in parallel using multiple nodes. We'll also use Elixir's immutable data structures for data transformation.

Before we start, we need to add the necessary dependencies to our `mix.exs`

file:

```
defp deps do
[
{:flow, "~> 1.0"},
{:axon, "~> 0.8"},
{:enum_actor, "~> 0.5"}
]
end
```

Start multiple Elixir nodes, each with a unique name. You can do this by running the following command in separate terminals:

```
# Node 1
iex --sname node1 -S mix
# Node 2
iex --sname node2 -S mix
# Node 3
iex --sname node3 -S mix
```

Define a distributed ETL process:

```
defmodule DistributedETL do
def generate_data(node) do
# Simulate data extraction (e.g., from a distributed source)
{:ok, data} = Flow.from_enum(1..10)
data
|> Flow.partition_by(:local, 2, fn _ -> node end)
|> Flow.map(&ETL.process_data(&1))
|> Flow.flat_map(&Enum.shuffle/1)
|> Flow.into([])
|> Flow.run()
end
end
```

Define ETL operations:

```
defmodule ETL do
def process_data(data) do
# Simulate data transformation (e.g., filtering, mapping, feature engineering)
Enum.map(data, &(&1 * 2)) # Double each value
end
end
```

Distribute the ETL process, on each node, run the distributed ETL process, and collect the results:

```
# On Node 1
result_node1 = DistributedETL.generate_data(:node1)
# On Node 2
result_node2 = DistributedETL.generate_data(:node2)
# On Node 3
result_node3 = DistributedETL.generate_data(:node3)
```

Aggregate and perform ML; we can now aggregate the results from all nodes and perform machine learning on the combined data:

```
all_results = result_node1 ++ result_node2 ++ result_node3
# Train a machine learning model (as shown in the previous example)
trained_model = LinearRegression.fit(all_results)
# Store or use the trained model as needed
IO.inspect(trained_model)
```

Ensure that all nodes have the necessary code loaded, and run the pipeline on each node separately.

This example demonstrates a simplified distributed ETL and machine learning pipeline across multiple nodes in Elixir. In a real-world scenario, you would need to consider more complex data distribution, fault tolerance, and load balancing, possibly using a distributed task coordination system like GenStage or Flow.

But an even more interesting trick can be done by taking advantage of the fact that you can train and update the model in a running application.

Here's a simplified example of real-time model training using a GenStage producer and Axon for linear regression.

```
# Define a GenStage producer for data ingestion
defmodule RealTimeDataProducer do
use GenStage
def init(_) do
{:producer, nil}
end
def handle_demand(demand, state) do
new_state = fetch_real_time_data()
{:noreply, new_state, new_state}
end
defp fetch_real_time_data() do
# Simulate fetching real-time data
new_data = ... # Fetch data from a source
{:producer, new_data}
end
end
```

```
# Model training process
defmodule RealTimeModelTraining do
use GenStage
def init(state) do
{:consumer, state}
end
def handle_events(events, state) do
# Train the machine learning model using Axon
updated_model = train_model(state, events)
{:noreply, updated_model, updated_model}
end
defp train_model(model, events) do
# Perform incremental model training with new data
Enum.reduce(events, model, fn event, acc ->
# Update the model based on new data
updated_model = LinearRegression.online_fit(acc, event)
updated_model
end)
end
end
```

Deploy the trained model for making predictions on new data as it arrives. This could be done within the same Elixir application or through a separate service.

Keep in mind that building a production-ready real-time machine learning system involves various considerations, including data quality, model versioning, monitoring, and scalability.

You may also need to use distributed stream processing frameworks for handling high-volume real-time data streams effectively.

Elixir's machine-learning libraries are being actively developed and will provide even greater capabilities and applications in a variety of fields. I believe that Elixir has a long and exciting journey ahead of it in the world of machine learning.

L O A D I N G

. . . comments & more!

. . . comments & more!