ARCS model is a problem-solving-oriented model of instructional design. At the core of its application is the need to create an engaging learning experience. Developed by John Keller
It emphasizes the need to keep the learner engaged through the entirety of the learning experience using specific tactics and strategies.
What is the ARCS model?
The 4 Components of the ARCS model
Applying ARCS model
Thank you, John Keller
ARCS model is an instructional design model aimed at leveraging motivation as a tool for learning. The model has hinged on the premise that learning occurs most effectively when learners are engaged for the entirety of the learning process.
It focuses on strategies that can be used to engage students from start to completion of the learning experience. ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction which are the four components of the model.
At the center of this model is the need to get and hold the learner’s attention either by arousing curiosity, stimulating interest, or raising controversy. Some strategies used to ensure this include:
Perceptual arousal: Here the instructor uses specific and relatable examples, creates surprise, introduces something new, or adopts humor to grab the attention of the learner.
Inquiry arousal: Either a question is posed, there is a brainstorming session, the learners engage in role-play, or participate in a practical activity.
Variability: In this case, the instructor incorporates a range of learning materials, and adopts varying methods and approaches to communicate the learning content such as web pages, games, excursions, and videos.
This refers to the need to ensure that the learner can see the application of what is being taught in everyday life, essentially bridging the gap between class and the real world. It involves shaping the learners’ view of learning activities to be that the learning activities are important, useful, and meaningful to them.
Goal Orientation: At this point explain the present worth of the content, why, and how it is useful to the learner today. Then explain how and why it will be useful, in the future.
Motive Matching: Through assessing the learners determine whether they learn because of achievement, power, or affiliation. Also, give learners the chance to choose their learning method and strategy.
Familiarity: Create a sense of continuity by allowing learners to establish links between past information and new information. Use role models as examples to reinforce the applicability of learning materials.
Here the instructor is establishing the probability of success for the learner through tasks and activities that build the students feeling of self-efficacy.
Learning Requirements: It is essential to learn goals and expectations so that learners can position themselves for success.
Success Opportunities: Provide multiple and varying experiences to reinforce learning and increase chances of understanding the learning material.
Personal Control: Create a learning experience that gives learners control of their progress and process.
At the end of the learning experience, learners should be satisfied with the knowledge and skills they have acquired based on the activities.
Intrinsic Reinforcement: Structure the learning experience such that the learners enjoy the process and do not require external motivation.
Extrinsic Reinforcement: Add rewards and positive reinforcement to encourage the learner, validate their efforts and create a positive learning environment.
Equity: Ensure standards and consequences are uniform throughout the learning experience, this includes rewards, learning assessments, and consequences.
ARCS model can be applied in any setting, the education sector, or training organized for business and performance enhancement.
ARCS model applies principles of psychology that are usually overlooked in formal education. The development of this model provides Instructional designers a practical way to keep students engaged. Thank you John Keller for developing this model and expanding the lenses through which education is developed and viewed, it will be fundamental in the revision of education systems and structures.