A HOME-MADE PANTOGRAPH
Too Long; Didn't ReadThe pantograph is a simple apparatus for copying drawings, maps, designs, etc., on a reduced or enlarged scale, or to the same size as the original.
[Illustration: FIG. 186.—Details of simple pantograph.]
A sketch of a pantograph is given in Fig. 186. Four rods are jointed together to form a parallelogram, the sides of which can be lengthened or shortened to suit the scale of reproduction. One is attached by a fixed pivot at a to the board on which the drawing is done. At b and e are removable pivots, used for adjusting the rods; at c is a pivot which projects an inch or so below the rods. The pointer is inserted at d for enlargement, or at f for reduction, the pencil being in the unoccupied hole at d or f.
If a same-sized copy is desired, the fixed pivot is transferred to d, and the pencil and pointer placed at a and f respectively.
Construction of an Enlarging and Reducing Pantograph.—Cut out of 1/8-inch oak, walnut, or beech four rods 5/8 inch wide and 19 inches long. Smooth them well all over, and make marks near the ends of each, exactly 18 inches apart. The graduation of the rods for the adjustment pivot holes is carried out in accordance with the measurements given in Fig. 187. It is advisable to mark out and bore each rod separately if you do not possess a machine which will drill holes quite perpendicularly; if you do, all four rods can be drilled at one operation.
In Fig. 187 the lower row of numerals indicates the number of times (in diameters) the original is enlarged when all four holes similarly figured are used; the upper row, the size of the copy as compared with the original in case of reduction.
If proportions other than those given are required, a very little calculation will locate the necessary holes.
Pivots.—All the pivots must fit their holes accurately, as any looseness at the joints detracts from the truth of reproduction. For pivots band b and e may use brass screws and small pieces of hard wood as nuts to hold them in position. The nuts should screw on rather stiffly, and not be forced hard against the rods, as free motion with little friction at all joints is essential for good work.
[Illustration: FIG. 187.—Diagram showing how to mark off pantograph rods. The dotted lines above rod give distances of holes from ends.]