As of July 13th, 2022, there are 135 security flaws reported to the CVE database.
This means that, without proper configuration and maintenance, PostgreSQL can be exploitable.
The popular object-relational database has better out-of-the-box security configurations than other databases. However, proper precautions are still needed to safeguard web applications and underlying data.
This is a PCI-DSS obligation if you run a PostgreSQL based web app with credit card information.
They'll post major security updates and patches there. You can also use a tool to check for available updates.
If you are on Ubuntu, "unattended-packages" can manage security updates for you.
In Windows you can use WSUS or InTune to manage and deploy update rings on your behalf.
PostgreSQL will refuse connection requests from other servers if listen_addresses set to localhost.
This will shield the database and underpinning data structures from unauthorized access.
The database and management ports should be the only ports with access to the server. Lock down any extra ports that permit network access to the database.
By itself, this eliminates a large number of important attack vectors. Once more, you can change this in pg_hba.conf. Do you or your engineers still need remote access to the database? SSH to the server instead and then use a local connection. A different option is to configure SSH tunnel access to PostgreSQL. That allows client machines to access remote databases as if they were local.
Hash-based encryption techniques like MD5 are one-way and you can't decrypt them. Encryption methods like AES are two-way and you can decrypt them. Only use one-way encryption for values that have you have to compare for a match, like passwords. This adds an extra layer of security if hackers compromise your table information.
Create a new user and assign the proper permissions. In doing so, you increase the level of security to keep users and data apart. You should do this for each new application using the PostgreSQL database.
By enabling query tracking for your database, you improve your audit trail. This makes it easier to locate offenders in the event of an error or compromise. Install the pg_stat_statements extension first. Make sure that you turn on monitoring for any and all query types (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE).
Create standby hosts with Point In Time Recovery (PITR) mechanisms to use "base backups". These are copies of the primary host's data cluster. You should always transfer "base backups" over networks using an encoded transport method. You can use the PostgreSQL CLI function pg_basebackup. On the server, you must enable TLS encryption. You can also make a "base backup" by using the pgBackRest tool.
HailBytes hardened PostgreSQL images can spin up a hardened PostgreSQL database in minutes on AWS or GCP. That includes all these controls and 56 more security measures to keep your data safe. Email us at [email protected] or try it today — it's free for the first 5 days.